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What is ACSA ??. Why bother ?? Here are some thoughts…. Computers: Fine exponents of the present days’ technological wave Solid and trusted performance, indispensable support in many fields Moore’s law on computer performance still holding ( barely? )

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why bother here are some thoughts
Why bother ??Here are some thoughts…
  • Computers:
    • Fine exponents of the present days’ technological wave
    • Solid and trusted performance, indispensable support in many fields
    • Moore’s law on computer performance still holding (barely?)
  • Two major problems(according to Gigascale)
    • Of the small: caused by device shrinking – dominant thus far, industry’s main focus and investment
    • Of the large: enormity of design verification and manufacturing-test tasks – now a limitation for industrial progress
should we care here are some more thoughts
Should we care ??Here are some more thoughts…
  • Physical limits of current, conventional technologies approaching fast (also financial limits!)
    • Intel’s 90nm Prescott chip already close to the thermal wall
    • need to individually place atoms inside chips throughout 2010's
  • Moore’s law breakdown forecasted around 2018 (source: Intel)
  • ITRS – two near- and longer-term challenges:
    • sustaining the 17% annual increase in performance
    • developing beyond CMOS materials and applications
are there any alternatives
Are there any alternatives ??

Emerging Technologies and CMOS

  • Speed
  • Size
  • Cost
  • Switching Energy

Source: ITRS report

– 2004 update

what about this course
What about this course ??
  • New computing architectures:
    • Biologically-inspired computing
        • First part of the semester
    • Molecular and DNA computing
    • Nanoelectronics, …
  • New computing paradigms:
    • Quantum computing
        • Second part of the semester
    • Reversible computing
    • Adiabatic computing, …
bioinspired computing why
Bioinspired Computing: Why ??
  • Tradition: engineering and science have developed along separate tracks
    • Natural scientist – a detective:seeking toanalyze existing processes, toexplain their operation, to model them, and topredict their future behavior
    • Engineer – a builder:tries tocreate artificial systems (bridges, cars, electronic devices) based on a set ofspecifications (a description) and a set ofprimitives (elementary components such as bricks, beams, wires, motors, and transistors)
bioinspired computing why 2
Bioinspired Computing: Why ?? (2)
  • Present days:
    • scientists use tools created by engineers
    • engineers allured by certain natural processes
  • Living organisms – complex systems exhibiting a range of desirable characteristics difficult to realize using traditional engineering methodologies
    • evolution
    • adaptation
    • fault tolerance
living organisms
Living organisms ??
  • Living systems characterized by agenetic program (the genome), that guides their development, their functioning,and their death
  • Considering life on Earth since its very beginning, three levels of organization distinguished:
    • phylogeny
    • ontogeny
    • epigenesis
phylogeny
Phylogeny
  • First level of organization considered for living systems
  • Temporal evolution of the genetic program (the genome) concerned
  • Replication based on genome multiplying – low error rate at individual level
  • Genetic mechanisms fundamentally nondeterministic –> genetic diversity -> survavibility
ontogeny
Ontogeny
  • Second level of organization considered for multicellular living systems
  • Temporal evolution of one individual
  • Successive cellular division of the zygote -> cellular differentiation
  • Processes essentially deterministic –> wrong genetic sequence -> notable/lethal malformations
epigenesis
Epigenesis
  • Third level of organization considered for living systems
  • Ontogenetic information limited -> another process emerge to integrate knowledge
  • Example:human brain 1010 neurons, 1014 connections -> too large to be encoded by the genome
  • Learning systems
      • Nervous
      • Endocrine
      • Immune
poe model how does affect us computer engineers phylogeny
POE Model: How Does Affect US, Computer Engineers ?? -- Phylogeny
  • Artificial evolution: genetic algorithms, evolution strategies, evolutionary programming, and genetic programming
  • Large scale programmable circuits: configure function by programming -> FPGAs - three distinct levels of configuration for an FPGA:
      • logic
      • cell interconnection
      • inputs and outputs
  • Evolvable hardware: an evolutionary approach to digital design
poe model how does affect us computer engineers ontogeny
POE Model: How Does Affect US, Computer Engineers ?? -- Ontogeny
  • Growth, construction:
      • self-test and self-repair
      • self-replication
      • Embryonics
poe model how does affect us computer engineers epigenesis
POE Model: How Does Affect US, Computer Engineers ?? -- Epigenesis
  • Nervous system:
      • Traditionally the most investigated
      • Artificial Neural Networks
  • Immune system:
      • software fault detection
      • Controllers for mobile robots
  • Endocrine system
      • hormones