Disability Resource Directory Kasey Davidson, Cody Knight, Alicia Smith, and Angel Roesch
What is it? • Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autism are both general terms for a group of complex disorders of brain development. • These disorders are characterized, in varying degrees, by difficulties in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and repetitive behaviors. • They include autistic disorder, Rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and Asperger syndrome.
Diagnoses • Most times parents are the first to acknowledge that their child is not showing usual developmental milestones • Modified Checklist of Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) is a list of informative questions about your child which answers if the child needs further evaluated by a specialist such as a developmental pediatrician, neurologist, psychiatrist or psychologist. • May be diagnosed later in life due to educational and social difficulties.
Symptoms • Social Challenges • Communication Difficulties • Repetitive Behaviors
Prevalence • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) identify around 1 in 88 American children as on the autism spectrum–a ten-fold increase in prevalence in 40 years. • Studies also show that autism is four to five times more common among boys than girls. • An estimated 1 out of 54 boys and 1 in 252 girls are diagnosed with autism in the United States. • ASD affects over 2 million individuals in the U.S. and tens of millions worldwide. • Government autism statistics suggest that prevalence rates have increased 10 to 17 percent annually in recent years with no true cause or reason.
Causes • There is no one cause of Autism • Scientists have identified a number of rare gene changes, or mutations, associated with autism. • Most cases of autism appear to be caused by a combination of autism risk genes and environmental factors influencing early brain development.
Causes Continued • Autism risk factors involves events before and during birth. • They include advanced parental age at time of conception (both mom and dad), maternal illness during pregnancy and certain difficulties during birth, particularly those involving periods of oxygen deprivation to the baby’s brain. • These factors, by themselves, do not cause autism but in combination with genetic risk factors, they appear to slightly increase the risk.
Treatments • Each child and adult needs their own intervention plan • These may include medicines, behavior plans, or both • Intensive behavior plans include the entire family
Early Intervention Program Requirement • The child receives structured, therapeutic activities for at least 25 hours per week. • Highly trained therapists and/or teachers deliver the intervention. Well-trained paraprofessionals may assist with the intervention under the supervision of an experienced professional with expertise in autism therapy. • The therapy is guided by specific and well-defined learning objectives, and the child’s progress in meeting these objectives is regularly evaluated and recorded. • The intervention focuses on the core areas affected by autism. These include social skills, language and communication, imitation, play skills, daily living and motor skills. • The program provides the child with opportunities to interact with typically developing peers. • The program actively engages parents in the intervention, both in decision making and the delivery of treatment. • The therapists make clear their respect for the unique needs, values and perspectives of the child and his or her family. • The program involves a multidisciplinary team that includes, as needed, a physician, speech-language pathologist and occupational therapist.
Strategies • Be patient • Get to know your students • Buddy system • Highlight strengths- adapt instruction and activities • Be aware of bullying • Promote and encourage self-esteem
Quick Facts • Autism now affects 1 in 88 children and 1 in 54 boys • Autism prevalence figures are growing • Autism is the fastest-growing serious developmental disability in the U.S. • Autism costs a family $60,000 a year on average • Autism receives less than 5% of the research funding of many less prevalent childhood diseases • Boys are nearly five times more likely than girls to have autism • There is no medical detection or cure for autism • New research suggests that a woman can reduce her risk of having a child with autism by taking prenatal vitamins containing folic acid and/or eating a diet rich in folic acid (at least 600 mcg a day) during the months before and after conception. Resource: AutismSpeaks.org
Resources • http://www.aspergerssyndrome.org/ • http://www.autism-help.org/ • http://www.autismspeaks.org • 100 day tool kit • Screening information for parents • Videos
Local Resources • http://communities.autismspeaks.org/site/c.ihLPK1PDLoF/b.7513397/k.84F7/South_Carolina_Resources.htm • Video glossary • Tool kit • Screening information • School community tool kit • 157 resources
Local Organizations • Autism Advocate Foundation P.O. Box 7061 Myrtle Beach, SC 29572 843 213 0217 www.autismadvocatefoundation.com The Autism Advocate Foundation offers Project Lifesaver, Richards summer program, Life Lessons (for our high-functioning kids) Respite care and social skills programs. AAF is a nonprofit serving Horry County. Contact: Amy Gary Executive Director • Autism Advocate Foundation PO Box 7061 Myrtle Beach, SC 29572 843 213 0217 www.autismadvocatefoundation.com A non profit 501 3 (c) which began in July 2004 Contact: Cheryl Bauerle email@example.com • Autism Society of America SC 301 657 0881 800 328 8476 www.autism-society.org
What is it? • IDEA 2004 Definition: Emotional disturbance means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child's educational performance: (A) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. (B) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. (C) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. (D) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. (E) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.
Diagnoses/ Characteristics • Hyperactivity (short attention span, impulsiveness); • Aggression or self-injurious behavior (acting out, fighting); • Withdrawal (not interacting socially with others, excessive fear or anxiety); • Immaturity (inappropriate crying, temper tantrums, poor coping skills); and • Learning difficulties (academically performing below grade level). • Children with the most serious emotional disturbances may exhibit distorted thinking, excessive anxiety, bizarre motor acts, and abnormal mood swings.
Prevalence • Approximately 8.3 million children (14.5%) aged 4–17 years have parents who’ve talked with a health care provider or school staff about the child’s emotional or behavioral difficulties. • Nearly 2.9 million children have been prescribed medication for these difficulties.
Causes • No one knows the actual cause or causes of emotional disturbance, although several factors have been considered. • Heredity, brain disorder, diet, stress, and family functioning have been suggested and researched as considerable causes of emotional disturbances. • As of right now, researchers have not found that any of these factors are the direct cause of behavioral or emotional problems.
Treatments and Interventions • Some children will be placed on medication depending on the severity of their emotional disturbance. • Schools are required to use the RTI (Response to Intervention) process when evaluating behavior. • All behavior plans for each student should be researched, proven effective, and in the least restrictive environment for these students.
Treatmentsand Interventions • Class wide reinforcement should be consistent in delivery of rewarding desired behaviors and providing consequences for undesired behaviors. • A consistently implemented classroom management system can prevent the need for individualized behavior plans. • Obtaining both constructive and positive reinforcement in the classroom, not just negative reinforcement. Students should be rewarded for their success and improvement.
Strategies • Buddy System - Students with an emotional disturbance have trouble developing relationships making it hard for them to function in school, whether it is during recess or class work. - Although they have trouble forming a relationship this does not mean that they can’t. Having a consistent figure in their school days may help build confidence in their relationship skills and help them learn to trust.
Strategies • Create a folder of work • Sometimes when we give these students a worksheet they feel forced or controlled. By creating a folder with all the work needed to be done in the day and allowing them to work at their own pace creates a more comfortable environment for them. • Positive behavior support plan • Ideal for these students. Most times they are only acknowledged when they are doing wrong. When we see these students interacting with other students or completing the class work on their own, they need to be recognized
Resources • http://nichcy.org/wp-content/uploads/docs/fs5.pdf List of organizations and resources for dealing with and getting help for a child with an emotional disturbance http://www.do2learn.com/disabilities/CharacteristicsAndStrategies/EmotionalDisturbance_Strategies.html Strategies for parents and teachers
Resources • http://www.familyconnectionsc.org/resources.html • Wonderful site with resources and guides on how to get involved http://www.oepp.sc.gov/coc/contact/default.html • The Continuum of Care is a program that serves children with severe emotional disturbance. It is housed within the Governor's Office of Executive Policy and Programs. The Continuum has one administrative office (State Office) in Columbia and four regional offices located in Columbia, North Charleston, Greenville and Florence that provide services throughout the state.
What is it? • IDEA 2004- Hearing impairment means an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child's educational performance but that is not included under the definition of deafness in this section. • Hearing loss is generally described as slight, mild, moderate, severe, or profound, depending upon how well a person can hear the intensities or frequencies most strongly associated with speech. • Impairments in hearing can occur in either or both areas, and may exist in only one ear or in both ears. • Generally, only children whose hearing loss is greater than 90 decibels (dB) are considered deaf.
Types • Conductive hearing losses • caused by diseases or obstructions in the outer or middle ear (the pathways for sound to reach the inner ear). • Usually affects all frequencies of hearing evenly and do not result in severe losses. • Usually is able to use a hearing aid well or can be helped medically or surgically. • Sensorineural hearing losses • result from damage to the delicate sensory hair cells of the inner ear or the nerves that supply it. • range from mild to profound. • affect the person’s ability to hear certain frequencies more than others. • Mixed hearing loss • refers to a combination of conductive and sensorineural loss and means that a problem occurs in both the outer or middle and the inner ear. • Central hearing loss • results from damage or impairment to the nerves or nuclei of the central nervous system, either in the pathways to the brain or in the brain itself.
Signs • Does not respond consistently to sounds or to his or her own name • Asks for things to be repeated or often says “huh?” • Is delayed in developing speech or has unclear speech • Turns the volume up loud on the TV and other electronic devices
Prevalence • Each year in the United States, more than 12,000 babies are born with a hearing loss; often, the cause is unknown • Profound deafness occurs in 4-11 per 10,000 children; in at least 50% of these cases, the cause is genetic • The U.S. Department of Education(2006) reports that 14,787 children received audiology services in early intervention programs in the fall of 2004, while 139,643 children received speech-language pathology services. • The Department (2007) also reports that, during the 2003 school year, 79,522 students aged 3 to 21 received special education ervices under the category of “hearing impairment.”
Causes • Acquired • meaning that the loss occurred after birth, due to illness or injury • build up of fluid behind the eardrum; • ear infections (known as otitis media); • childhood diseases, such as mumps, measles, or chicken pox; and • head trauma.
Causes • Congenital • meaning that the hearing loss or deafness was present at birth. • Family history of hearing loss or deafness • Infections during pregnancy (such as rubella) • Complications during pregnancy (such as the Rh factor, maternal diabetes, or toxicity) Also: • A child’s hearing loss or deafness may also be a characteristic of another disability such as Down syndrome, Usher syndrome, Treacher Collins syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, and Alport syndrome
Treatments • Regular speech, language, and auditory training from a specialist • Amplification systems • Services of an interpreter for those students who use sign language • Favorable seating in the class to facilitate lip reading; • Captioned films/videos • Assistance of a note taker, who takes notes for the student with a hearing loss, so that the student can fully attend to instruction • Instruction for the teacher and peers in alternate communication methods, such as sign language; andcounseling.
Strategies • Make sure the child can see your lips and facial expressions when you are talking. • Never talk with your back turned to the student. • Speak naturally and not too loudly if the child wears a hearing aid. • Try not to move around too much when you are speaking, if you have to move about, be sure to try and face the child as much as possible. • Do not overuse hand gestures. Children do not like to be treated differently. • Always ensure that directions, assignments, instructions are understood before the child begins working.
Resources • http://nichcy.org/disability/specific/hearingloss • Loaded with information, strategies, and organizations http://www.ncbegin.org/index.php • Great site for parents Great readings : • Your Child’s Hearing Development Checklist http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/hearing/silence.asp • To Parents of Deaf Children http://www.deaf-culture-online.com/parents-of-deaf-children.html • Early Interventionhttp://www.infanthearing.org/earlyintervention/index.html
Contacts • State Department of Education: Special Education South Carolina Department of Education Office of Exceptional Children 1429 Senate Street, Room 808 Columbia SC 29201 (803) 734-8224 (899) 628-0910 - toll free help line firstname.lastname@example.org • State School for the Deaf and the Blind South Carolina School for the Deaf and the Blind 355 Cedar Springs Road Spartanburg SC 29302-4699 (864) 585-7711 email@example.com
What is it? • IDEA 2004- • significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently [at the same time] with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affectsa child’s educational performance. • One criterion to measure intellectual functioning is an IQ test. Generally, an IQ test score of around 70 or as high as 75 indicates a limitation in intellectual functioning. Standardized tests can also determine limitations in adaptive behavior, which comprises three skill types: Conceptual skills—language and literacy; money, time, and number concepts; and self-direction. Social skills—interpersonal skills, social responsibility, self-esteem, gullibility, naïveté (i.e., wariness), social problem solving, and the ability to follow rules/obey laws and to avoid being victimized. Practical skills—activities of daily living (personal care), occupational skills, healthcare, travel/transportation, schedules/routines, safety, use of money, use of the telephone.
Diagnosis and Characteristics • All the intellectually disabled have one thing in common which is the disability they have. However, they differ in every other aspect. The main characteristics of the intellectually disabled fall under 5 criterias which are: • Physical characteristics • An underdevelopment in physical growth • Average weight and height usually less than normal peers of the same chronological age • Physical deformation • Retarded movement and balance • Mental characteristics • Less-than-average I.Q. • Underdeveloped speech and language skills • Poor: memory, attention, perception, imagination, thinking, computing and concentration
Diagnosis and Characteristics Social characteristics • Underdeveloped ability of social adjustment • Lack of interests and orientations • Irresponsibility • Aloofness • Aggression • Low self-esteem Emotional characteristics • Emotional imbalance • Excessive movement • Evidence of premature or late reactions • Primitive reactions
Prevalence • Intellectual disability is thought to affect about 1% of the population. Of those affected, 85% have mild intellectual disability. • According to the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel (DSM), about 2-3% of people meet the criteria for intellectual disability. • This is because the diagnostic criterion for intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder, formerly mental retardation) requires an IQ score of approximately 70 or below, which represents two standard deviations below the mean (or below the average score for all people). • Statistically, two standard deviations below the mean equates to 2.5 percent of the entire population
Causes • Anytime something interferes with normal braindevelopment, intellectual disability can result. However, a specific cause for intellectual disability can only be pinpointed about a third of the time. The most common causes of intellectual disability are: • Genetic conditions. These include things like Down syndromeand fragile X syndrome. • Problems during pregnancy. Things that can interfere with fetal brain development include alcohol or drug use, malnutrition, certain infections, or preeclampsia. • Problems during childbirth. Intellectual disability may result if a babyis deprived of oxygen during childbirth or born extremely premature. • Illness or injury. Infections like meningitis, whooping cough, or the measles can lead to intellectual disability. Severe head injury, near-drowning, extreme malnutrition, exposure to toxic substances such as lead, and severe neglect or abuse can also cause it. • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Interventions • Baby’s and toddlers there is early intervention programs • IEP’s are created • School-aged children with intellectual disabilities (including preschoolers) are eligible for special education for free through the public school system.
Strategies • Learn everything you can about intellectual disabilities. The more you know, the better advocate you can be for your child. • Encourage your child’s independence. Let your child try new things and encourage your child to do things by himself or herself. • Provide guidance when it’s needed and give positive feedback when your child does something well or masters something new. • Get your child involved in group activities. Taking an art class or participating in Scouts will help your child build social skills. • Stay involved. By keeping in touch with your child’s teachers, you’ll be able to follow his or her progress and reinforce what your child is learning at school through practice at home. • Get to know other parents of intellectually disabled children. They can be a great source of advice and emotional support.
Resources • http://www.aaidd.org/content_100.cfm • Has a link to a great video • Multiple links for organizations, conferences, and latest news • Support systems and online communities http://www.somena.org/showpage.aspx?PID=371 _ Has great facts, FAQ’s, online resources, and information about the Special Olympics http://children.webmd.com/intellectual-disability-mental-retardation?page=3 - Great facts, intervention ideas, and strategies for teachers and parents.
Local Resources • Arc of Horry County 820 Surfside Drive Surfside, SC 29575Phone: (843) 286-3040Fax: (843) 286-3044 Home Page: www.arcofhorry.orgE-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org • Advocacy organization that provides information, training and support to people with intellectual disability and their families. An all volunteer organization.
Local Resources • Arc of South Carolina 806 12th StreetWest Columbia, SC 29169 Phone: (803) 748-5020 Fax: (803) 750-8121E-mail: email@example.comHome Page: www.arcsc.org • Advocacy organization that provides information, training and support to children and adults with special needs, including intellectual disability and related developmental disabilities, and their families Wonderful Resource: http://www.ddsn.sc.gov/consumers/advocacyorgs/Pages/MentalRetardationSCSupportGroups.aspx