British HistoryThrough Football Diversity through football
Billy Meredithfootball hero1874-1958 Billy Meredith second row, first player on left • William “Billy” Meredith was a Welsh footballer. • He was one of the early superstars and 1904 was voted the most popular player in football. • Billy Meredith was born in north Wales in 1874. • He left school when he was 12 and began work as a pony driver in Black Park Colliery.
Billy Meredith • Meredith, like most miners in the north Wales area, watched and played football whenever he could. • Meredith became renowned for the quality and accuracy of his ‘crosses’ something which was difficult in the early 1900’s because the pitches were usually muddy quagmires and the leather footballs were often sodden with water and as heavy as rocks. Photograph dated 1911 of a boy pony driver with his pony in a coal mine. • Billy Meredith used to chew on a toothpick during games! • In 2007 Meredith was inducted into the English Football Hall of Fame.
Frank Whitby1st professional footballer • On 15 December 1890, Luton Town offered a salary of five shillings per week to 3 players: Frank Whitby, Harry Whitby and Tom Read. • Frank Whitby was the first to sign and so became the first professional player in the south of England. Howard Vaughton & Arthur Alfred Brown 1st Hat Trick for England Arthur Alfred Brown Howard Vaughton • The first players to score a hat-trick for England were Howard Vaughton (5 goals) & Arthur Alfred Brown (4 goals) in a friendly match against Ireland in 1882.
Greatest Matchof the 1900’s • Possibly, the greatest match of the 1900s, was the 1901 FA Cup final between Tottenham and Sheffield United. • The first match, watched by 110,820 people, was the first match ever to be filmed by Pathé news and ended in a 2-2 draw. • The replay was significant because Tottenham in 1901 were a non-league side and they won the match 3-1 becoming the first team outside of the Football League to win the trophy.
Hong Ying “Frank” SooEngland Footballer1914-1991 • Hong Ying “Frank” Soo was born in England. • Soo was the first person with Chinese heritage to play for the football league. • Soo also played for the England war-time team (9 appearances between 1942-1945) . • Soo is still the only person with East Asian heritage to have represented England at football. • Soo was also the very first non-white British person to represent England to play football at international matches.
Arthur Wharton1865-1930 • Arthur Wharton was the first Black footballer to be paid a wage for playing football anywhere in the world – this means he was the first Black professional footballer in the world. • He was also the first Black player to play in the English football league. • Arthur Wharton was born in Ghana. • Wharton also set the first world record for the 100 yards in 1886.
Andrew Watson is considered to be the world's first Black footballer to play at international level. • He was capped three times for Scotland between 1881 and 1882. • In 1881 he was the captain of the Scottish Team when they played England at London’s Oval ground. The score from the match was 6-1 to Scotland. • Watson is now thought to be the first Black player to play matches in England. • In 1882, Watson was played football for the English team the Swifts in English FA Cup matches. AndrewWatson1857 - 1902
David ClarkeFive-a-side footballer • Clarke has been described as England's greatest goal scorer. • He has scored 128 goals for the England national five-a-side team. • He has also had 144 international caps. • David Clarke is an English footballer, who is the "longest serving member of the England five-a-side football team", for blind football.
Dial Square football team 1886 Men’s Football • Factory owners once did all they could to prevent their workers playing sports like football. • Views changed as it was discovered that playing sport was more likely to keep workers healthy. • Many factory owners started encouraging the formation of works teams to help encourage team work amongst their workforce. • Dial Square was formed in 1886 by workers at the Royal Arsenal in Woolwich and went on to become Arsenal FC. • Thames Ironworks FC was formed by the workforce in 1895 this became West Ham. • Newton Heath was a club founded by workers from the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Company and went on to become Manchester United.
Men’s Football In 1891, a Newton Heath player, Alfred Farman, scored the first penalty in football history during the match between Newton Heath and Blackpool in the 4th qualifying round of the FA Cup. Alfred Farman The original Thames Ironworks Team. The Thames Ironworks team included Thomas Freeman (ships fireman), Walter Parks (clerk), Tom Mundy, Walter Tranter and James Lindsay (all boilermakers) and apprentice riveter Charlie Dove.
Interesting Football FactsDo some research to find more! • Football’s roots are found across the world in various games involving kicking a ball with the foot to score a goal. • In England the first recorded mention of a kicking a ball game was in Medieval times. • Medieval football games were often very violent and frequently banned. • The first account in Britain of a kicking ball game (in 1280) recorded that a player was killed when he ran into an opposing player's dagger. • The first record of football boots is for Henry VIII of England who ordered a pair from the Great Wardrobe in 1526. Mob football in Medieval times. King Henry VIII
In 1889 John Alexander Brodie invented the football net. • Brodie was the engineer who designed the Mersey Tunnel (completed in 1934) which is still Britain’s largest locally organised engineering project. • Brodie had the idea for a net after watching a match and seeing a wrongly-disallowed goal that robbed his team of a victory. • Brodie realised that a net could confirm whether or not a goal had been scored, and also keep spectators off the line. Hitting the back of the net! John Alexander Brodie Fred Geary • In 1891, the Football Association trialled Brodie’s nets during a North versus South match and an Everton player, Fred Geary, scored the first goal becoming the first footballer to hit the back of the net. • All of his inventions, John Alexander Brodie was most proud of inventing the football net.
Football in WarWorld War I • On Christmas Day in 1914, The Royal Welch Fusiliers met their German opponents and the Prussians in no-man's-land for an impromptu game of football on what was a rare day of peace. • Captain C I Stockwell wrote an account of the events on "one of the most curious Christmas Days" he had ever experienced. • He describes the singing, cheering and the exchanging of beer that took place. After this one night of peace and festivity, the fighting resumed the next day.
A number of regiments kicked footballs as they advanced across No-Man’s-Land through heavy machine gun and motor fire. • This is an example of the importance of football to the ordinary soldier. • Thousands of footballs made their way to the First World War front line. • Captain J.L. Jack, of the Scottish Rifles complained, ‘However tired the rascals may be for parades, they always have enough energy for football’. • Evelyn Lintott was one of the many talented footballers who were killed during the first world war. • World War I soldiers wrote numerous letters home and many of these letters included tales of extraordinary bravery. Football in WarWorld War I Evelyn Lintott
Women’s Football1895 • The British Ladies Football Club organised its first public match in 1895. • The match was between The North Team and The South Team. • The North Team won 7-1. • This first women’s football match was watched by 10,000 people. Photo of Nettie Honeywell, Captain of the North Team, taken in 1895.
Women’s Football1920’s • In 1920 the first women’s international game was played with Preston-based Dick Kerr’s Ladies (a football team formed by workers at the Dick, Kerr and Co Ltd munitions factory) beating a French team 2-0, the match was watched by 25,000. • In 1920 the Dick Kerr Ladies played at Everton’s Goodison Park watched by a crowd of 53,000. • In 1921 the FA banned women's football from being played at its football grounds. • "The game of football is quite unsuitable for females and ought not to be encouraged," was the reason given. • The ban was not cancelled until July 1971.
Kings ban the game of football • In 1314 Edward II complained about , “Certain tumults arising from great footballs in the fields of the public, from which many evils may arise.” He was trying to raise an army to fight the Scots and was worried about the impact that football was having on the skills of his archers. • Edward II then decided that young people were more interested in playing football than practicing archery so he banned the playing of the game. • Edward III reintroduced the ban in 1331 in preparation for an invasion of Scotland.
Henry IV issued a new ban on football in 1388 and then in 1410 imposed a fine of 20 shillings and six days' imprisonment on anyone caught playing football. • In 1414, Henry V ordered men to practise archery rather than football. • In 1477, Edward IV passed a law that stipulated that "no person shall practise any unlawful games such as dice, quoits, football and such games, but that every strong and able-bodied person shall practise with bow for the reason that the national defence depends upon such bowmen." • Henry VII outlawed football in 1496 . • Henry VIII introduced a series of laws against the playing of the game in public places.
Film Resources Film Footage of Newcastle v Liverpool 1901 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DhjTX39xKB4 Some of the earliest film footage of a football math – amazing to see film footage of people that is more than 100 years old. History of Dick Kerr Ladies Football Team http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=LAs6PaFDtf0&feature=fvwp A seven minute film about the Dick Kerr Ladies football team – well worth watching as it links football to the changing role of women during WWI. Also shows that the women’s team beat some of the men’s teams they played! Please note it is silent film footage so pupils will need to be able to read reasonably well to access the material. Arthur Wharton http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UboT-e4gxEU This is a film of a dramatisation of Arthur Wharton’s life in football. This film is NOT suitable for secondary pupils as the acting is too exaggerated. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ACp6idE1v4 This film is NOT suitable for primary school pupils as it includes reference to the “N” word and also someone referring to Arthur Wharton as “coloured”. The film will give secondary pupils the opportunity to discuss language around race.
Andrew Watson http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FSTBOE3YiiE This is a long film (15 minutes) about the life of Andrew Watson. Suitable for secondary pupils doing additional research but not a film that will appeal to primary pupils. David Clarke http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uQcmp5GkzFA A very short (1min 30sec) film clip showing David Beckham playing blind football with David Clarke. 1901 FA Cup Final – Nottingham v. Sheffield United http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WrwI1AVrSa4&list=PLwlsCxxjY2A_PRkHNc6L157C649J4Bq2d The first time Pathé news filmed a football match. 1901 Film of miners leaving Pendlebury Colliery http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FFKyrUXmCMk&list=PLF3E52E5E9162CCE1&index=3 This is a short, silent film showing a large number of miners leaving work at the end of their shift.