Political institutions of china
1 / 36

Political Institutions of China - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Political Institutions of China. Elections designed to give the party-state greater legitimacy Party controls elections to prevent dissent Direct, secret-ballot elections at local level Found most common at the village level (could be a façade) Indirect elections at other levels . ELECTIONS .

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Political Institutions of China' - tambre

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript



Noncommunist parties

  • CCP allows the existence of eight "democratic" parties.  legitimacy

    • China Democratic League-intellectuals

    • Chinese Party for the Public Interest-overseas experts

  • Membership is small and has very little power

  • Important advisory role to the party leaders and generate support for CCP policies 

    • Meet at CPPCC during National People’s Congress (and attend NPC as nonvoting deputies)


Political institutions



Three parallel hierarchies

Principle of dual role

China's policy making is governed more directly by factions and personal relationships (guanxi)

Political Institutions

Organization of the ccp

  • Organized hierarchically by levels legitimacy

  •  The party has a separate constitution from the government's constitution of 1982, and its central bodies are:

    • National Party Congress

    • Central Committee

    • Politburo/Standing Committee

Organization of the CCP


  • Three branches - a legislature, an executive, and a judiciary.

  • People's National Congress

  • The National People's Congress choose the President and Vice President of China, but there is only one party-sponsored candidate for each position


  • The President and Vice President

  • The Premier

  • Bureaucracy




PRESIDENT judiciary.



  • Head of State

  • Elected by NPC (One candidate selected by CCP)

  • 5 year term, 2 term limit

  • Traditionally the General Sec.


Meets every 5 years for a week



Meets Yearly for 2 weeks


73% CCP

5 years





  • Premier = PM

  • Head of government

  • Member of the Standing Committee

  • State Council = Cabinet

  • Authority over Bureaucracy (40m cadres)

  • 2 term limit



Executives judiciary.

  • President and Premier (Prime Minister)

    • President is head of state with little constitutional power, but is sometimes the General Secretary of CCP

    • Prime Minister is head of State Council, or ministers, and is in charge of “departments” of government

Executives continued

They are elected for 5-year terms by National Peoples Congress, nominated by CCP’s National Party Congress

They also serve on Central Military Commission, which oversees the PLA

The CCP’s leader is the general secretary and he is in charge of bureaucracy, or Secretariat

Executives continued

The legislature

  • Think of Russian Congress, nominated by CCP’s National Party CongressMatrioshka dolls

  • Top legislative body is National Peoples Congress

    • 3,000 members chosen by provincial peoples congresses across the country

    • They meet in Beijing once a year for a couple of weeks to “legislate” for 1 billion+ people

      • Pass laws; amend Constitution,

      • On paper very powerful, but checked by Party

The Legislature


The National Peoples Congress chooses a Central Committee of 200 that meets every 2 months to conduct business

Inside this is the Central Committee’s Standing Committee which functions every day


Party representation

  • Parallel structure 200 that meets every 2 months to conduct business

  • The National Party Congress is main representative body of CCP, not people

    • Has 2,000 delegates

    • Select 150-200 people chosen for Central Committee

    • It chooses a Politburo of 12 people to run party’s day to day business

    • Many of these people work in Secretariat so Politburo chooses a Standing Committee of 6 headed by General Secretary (Thus merging executive to legislative)

Party Representation

Merging of executive and legislative

Standing Committee of Politburo includes president and prime minister, plus closest associates, and the party legislative “branch” and party executive is joined with government executive

Merging of Executive and Legislative


  • State Council minister, plus closest associates, and the party legislative “branch” and party executive is joined with government executive

    • Government Ministers and Premier carry out the decisions made by National Peoples Congress (or Politburo)

    • Chinese bureaucrats are paralled by party members assigned to their ministries

      • Leadership small groups are informal groups that link other ministers to coordinate policymaking and implementation

    • In spite of centralization, provincial and local ministries have had to adapt national policies to local needs



  • China has a 4-tiered " minister, plus closest associates, and the party legislative “branch” and party executive is joined with government executivepeople's court" system

    • Handle criminal cases and government working on civil law codes

  • “People's Procuratorate"

    • Investigates suspected illegal activity

  • Criminal justice is swift and harsh (capital punishment is a bullet in the back of the head)

  • Human Rights organizations criticize China

    • Not a rule of law system, rather a rule by law system


The people s liberation army
THE PEOPLE'S LIBERATION ARMY minister, plus closest associates, and the party legislative “branch” and party executive is joined with government executive

"Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun.“ - Mao

  • The People's Liberation Army encompasses all of the country's ground, air, and naval armed services. 

  • Important influence on politics and policy. 

    The second half of Mao's famous quote above is less often quoted:

    "Our principle is that the party commands the gun, and the gun must never be allowed to command the party."  

This propaganda poster represents life in the "Red Army" - the military under Mao before the People's Republic of China was formed in 1949.

Pla continued

PLA continued

Internal security

  • Ministry of State Security to modernize Army so fended for itself

    • Combats espionage and gathers intelligence

  • People’s Armed Police

    • Guards public buildings and quell unrest

  • Ministry of Public Security

    • Maintenance of law and order, investigations, surveillance

    • Maintain labor reform camps

    • No habeas corpus rights

Internal Security

Policies and issues

  • Economic reforms to modernize Army so fended for itself

    • Corruption

    • Iron rice bowl broken

    • High unemployment

    • Inequality of classes

    • Floating population

    • Environmental implications

  • Demand for political power and civil liberties?

  • Will contact through trade mean that China will become more like their trading partners? 

Policies and Issues

International trade
International Trade to modernize Army so fended for itself

  • Hong Kong

  • Special Economic Zones (SEZs). 

  • USA/China to modernize Army so fended for itselfrelations:

    • no contact until early 1970s

    • 1972 visit, Zhou Enlai, Nixon, Kissinger

    • Deng initiated open door policy

    • currently, major USA/China issues: trade imbalances, currency valuation, debt

Taiwan to modernize Army so fended for itself

  • China trades with Taiwan, but the PRC views Taiwan as part of China and Taiwan does not

    • But they want to benefit from its trade

Political change today

Democratic reforms can be seen in these ways: to modernize Army so fended for itself

  • Some input from the National People's Congress is accepted by the Politburo

  • More emphasis is placed on laws and legal procedures

  • Village elections are now semi-competitive, with choices of candidates and some freedom from the party's control

Political Change Today

During the long process of history, by relying on our own diligence, courage and wisdom, Chinese people have opened up a good and beautiful home where all ethnic groups live in harmony and fostered an excellent culture that never fades.-CCP Chairman XI jinping

Politics today

  • Xi was Chosen as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China on Nov. 15, 2012

  • Became President of the People's Republic of China on March 14, 2013, following his election by the National People's Congress, thus replacing his predecessor HuJintao.

  • Although the presidency is officially a ceremonial post, in recent years it has become customary for the general secretary to assume the presidency as confirmation of his rise to power.

  • Has adopted the theme; “Chinese Dream”

Politics Today

Democracy and human rights

  • Tiananmen crisis, 1989: student/intellectual grief demonstration following death of HuYaobang

  • turned into democratic protest joined by hundreds of thousands

  • shut down by PLA, unofficial estimates of 700 to several thousand killed

  • pressure from international human rights organizations

  • suppression of Falun Gong

  • tenuous position of rule of law in communist societies


    Economic policy

    • 1949-1978 demonstration following death of : China followed a communist political economic model:

      • command economy directed by central government based on democratic centralism

    • replaced by Deng with socialist market economy : gradual infusion of capitalism while retaining state control

    • Agricultural policy:

      • 1949 era: people’s communes: farms merged, several thousand families

      • one of Mao’s greatest failures

      • 1980’s: replaced by Household Responsibility System: dismantled communes, individual families take full charge of production and marketing

    Economic Policy

    Economic policy1

    • “private business” demonstration following death of

      • new category under control of the party

      • urban co-ops, service organizations, rural industries all acting as capitalist enterprises

      • private industry remains heavily regulated by the government, but

        • price controls lifted

        • private businesses far more profitable than state-owned

      • Township and Village Enterprises (TVEs):

      • rural factories and businesses, run by local government and private entrepreneurs

      • slowing the migration of peasants to the cities

    Economic Policy

    • ECONOMIC PROBLEMS demonstration following death of

      • (a) unemployment and inequality

      • (b) inefficiency of the state sector

      • (c) pollution

      • (d) product safety

    • China’s vulnerability to world economic crisis of 2008

      • rapid rebound, return to growth

    Population policy

    Mao demonstration following death of : population control policies were ‘imperialist tools’ designed to weaken developing countries

    post-Mao: “two-child family” campaign

    1979: Deng instituted “one child policy”

    • incentives and penalties

    • relaxation of policy in rural areas in 1984, reinstated in 2002

    • other consequences: female infanticide, gender imbalance, elder care

    • 2013 further relaxing of one child policy