The History of Astronomy. From Early Man to Newton. Early Man. Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences and really began with the first questions about observations.
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System of wheels w/in wheels to describe planetary motions and preserve geocentrism.
Planet lay on small circle called epicycle, which in turn was centered on the orbit around Earth called the deferent.
Eventually errors occurred overtime, prompting astronomers hundreds of years later to adjust constants and add epicycles – was still the model accepted by the ruling authority, the Roman Catholic Church.
Built his own telescope and made many stunning discoveries which forever changed our view of the universe.
Dynamic lunar surface (imperfect heaven), Phases of Venus (must orbit source of light, changing heaven), Moons of Jupiter (Earth not center of all motion), Sunspots (imperfect heaven), many more stars in than previously thought.
Evidence supported Copernican view, GG was outspoken about this.