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Chapter 8. Transport. Transport. Is the absorption and circulation within an organism. Passive Transport. vs. Active Transport. Passive Transport. A type of transport in which materials move across the cell membrane without using energy ( high concentration to low concentration).

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chapter 8

Chapter 8

Transport

transport
Transport
  • Is the absorption and circulation within an organism
passive transport

Passive Transport

vs.

Active Transport

passive transport1
Passive Transport
  • A type of transport in which materials move across the cell membrane without using energy

( high concentration to low concentration)

diffusion
Diffusion
  • The movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
osmosis
Osmosis
  • The diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
  • Example of Passive transport
active transport
Active Transport
  • A type of transport requiring energy to move materials across the cell membrane

(low concentration to high concentration)

concentration gradient
Concentration Gradient
  • The difference in concentration between a region of high concentration and a region of low concentration
slide9

Transport

  • passive transport
  • the movement of materials across a plasma membrane in which the cell expends no energy
    • Diffusion
    • Osmosis
    • Plasmolysis
    • Facilitated Diffusion
  • active transport 
  • the movement of materials against a concentration gradient (from regions of low concentration to regions of high concentration) buy using energy from ATP.
    • Endocytosis
      • Phagocytosis
      • Pinocytosis
    • Exocytosis
cell membrane
Cell membrane
  • Made up of proteins and lipids
  • Also known as :

- plasma membrane

- selective membrane

  • Is semipermeable membrane
  • Water molecules are small enough to easily diffuse across the cell membrane
slide12

The Cell Membrane

Lipids

Protein

Cytoplasm

absorption
Absorption
  • The passage of materials across the cell membrane and into the cell
circulation
Circulation
  • The movement of materials within a cell and/or throughout an organism
  • intracellular circulation
    • within the cell
      • (cyclosis)
      • Endoplasmic reticulum

b) Intercellular circulation

    • blood circulation throughout body
      • heart, blood vessels, capillaries
      • Gastrovascular cavity
intracellular circulation
Intracellular Circulation
  • Circulation within the cell
  • Ex: Cyclosis
intercellular circulation
Intercellular Circulation
  • Circulation outside of the cell
  • Ex: blood, heart,
transport in vascular plants
Transport in Vascular Plants
  • Plants have vascular (conducting) tissue known as xylem and phloem

1. Xylem- carries water and dissolved materials upward from the roots to the stems and leaves.

2. Phloem- carries food (glucose) and other organic compounds from the leaves throughout the rest of the plant.

roots
Roots
  • Roots are structures that specialize in the absorption of water and minerals from the soil, and the movement of these materials upward to the stem
root hairs
Root Hairs
  • Found on roots
  • Increase surface area for water absorption
stems
Stems
  • Structure is more complex than roots
  • The xylem and phloem tubes are continuous with the xylem and phloem of the roots
leaves
Leaves
  • The xylem and phloem tubes in the leaves are in vascular bundles called veins
  • The xylem and phloem tubes are continuous with the xylem and phloem of the roots and stems
bryophytes

Bryophytes

vs.

Tracheophytes

tale of two plants
Tracheophytes

Has Vascular tissue

Xylem, phloem

More complex

True roots, stems, leaves

Trees, flowers, bushes, Vegetables,

Grasses, etc

Bryophytes

Lacks Vascular tissue

Must be in moist Env.

Limited growth capabilities

Simple plants

NO true roots, stems, leaves

Mosses + liverworts

Tale of Two Plants
bryophytes1
Bryophytes
  • Are simple, multicellular organisms that lack vascular tissue (xylem and phloem)
  • Therefore, transport is done by diffusion through cell membrane
bryophytes2
Bryophytes
  • The Bryophytes have
  • no true roots, stems or leaves.
  • No vascular tissue (no tubes)
  • Ex: moss
tracheophytes
Tracheophytes
  • Are higher, more complex multicellular organisms that have vascular tissue for transport
tracheophytes1
Tracheophytes
  • 2. Tracheophytes- Have true roots, stems, and leaves.
  • Have vascular tissue
  • Ex: trees and flowering plants
review
Review

CO2

Sugars

O2

Figure 8-7 Photosynthesis: An Overview

Section 8-3

water

Light

Chloroplast

Chloroplast

NADP+

ADP + P

Light-

Dependent

Reactions

Calvin

Cycle

ATP

NADPH

leaf cross section
Leaf Cross Section

Cuticle

Veins

Epidermis

Palisademesophyll

Xylem

Vein

Phloem

Spongymesophyll

Epidermis

Stoma

Guardcells

section outline
Section Outline
  • 23–5 Transport in Plants
    • A. Water Transport
      • 1. Capillary Action
      • 2. Transpiration
      • 3. Controlling Transpiration
      • 4. Transpiration and Wilting
    • B. Nutrient Transport
      • 1. Functions of Phloem
      • 2. Movement From Source to Sink
stomates and guard cells
Stomates and Guard cells
  • a specialized cell on the undersurface of leaves for controlling gas exchange and water loss.
  • The Guard cells control the stomatal openings in the epidermis of the leaf.

Diagram #1-342

gas exchange lenticels
Gas Exchange : Lenticels
  • a spongy area present in the cork (bark) surfaces of the stems, roots, and other parts of vascular plants.
  • It appears on the surface as a lenticular (lens-shaped) spot, which acts as a pore.
  • These structures allow for the exchange of gases between the internal tissues and atmosphere to occur across the bark which would otherwise prevent this exchange of gases.
water movement
Water Movement
  • Movement of nutrients and water from the ground and into the root hairs involve the following:

1. Diffusion (nutrients in)

2. Osmosis (water in)

transpiration
Transpiration
  • The evaporation of water from the leaves through the stomates
  • Transpiration calls for the need of more water in the leaves, and as a result, water is pulled upward to replace the water that has evaporated
transpirational pull
Transpirational Pull
  • The upward pull of water through the xylem due to transpiration
transpiration video 23 a
Transpirationvideo 23.a

A

B

Evaporation of water molecules out of leaves.

Pull of water molecules upward from the roots.

transpiration1
Transpiration

A

B

Evaporation of water molecules out of leaves.

Pull of water molecules upward from the roots.

transport videos
Transport videos
  • Transpiration video 23.a
  • Translocation 23.b
figure 23 24 phloem transport
Figure 23–24 Phloem Transport

Section 23-5

Phloem

Xylem

Sugarmolecules

Source cell

Movementof water

Movementof sugar

Sink cell

organisms
Organisms
  • Protists
    • Ameoba
    • Paramecium
  • Animals
    • Hydra
    • Earthworm
    • Grasshopper
kingdom protista
Kingdom: Protista

Phylum: Protozoan, Amoeba (ameba)

Oxygen

CO2

Metabolic

Waste

kingdom protista1
Kingdom: Protista

Anterior Contractile vacuole

  • Phylum: Protozoan, Paramecium

Posterior Contractile vacuole

cytoplasm

Plasma membrane

circulation in protista
Circulation in Protista
  • Phylum: Protozoan
    • Ex. Amoeba, Paramecium
  • No specialized transport system
  • Materials enter and leave by:
    • diffusion and active transport
    • Uses contractile vacuoles
  • Ex. Oxygen, carbon dioxide
invertebrates review
Invertebrates Review

Intestine

Gizzard

Crop

Mouth/anus

Pharynx

Mouth

Gastrovascularcavity

Annelid

Anus

Gastrovascularcavity

Cnidarian

Arthropod

Crop

Pharynx

Anus

Pharynx

Mouth

Rectum

Mouth/anus

Stomachanddigestive glands

Flatworm

Intestine

kingdom animalia phylum coelenterate
Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: Coelenterate

Mouth/anus

Gastrovascularcavity

AKA: Cnidarian

cnidaria review
Cnidaria Review:
  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Coelenterates or Cnidaria
  • Simple multicellular organisms
  • 2 cell layers thick, endo and ectodermic layers
  • Every cell in contact with the environment
  • Carries out Extracellular circulation in Gastrovascular cavity (GVC)
    • Diffusion of gasses in and out
    • Ingests nutrients by Phagocytosis
  • Carries out Intracellular Circulation by Cyclosis and diffusion
kingdom animalia phylum annelida
Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: Annelida

Anus

Setae

Body segments

Dorsalblood vessel

Gizzard

Crop

Clitellum

Mouth

Brain

Ganglion

Circular muscle

Ventralblood vessel

Ringvessels

Reproductiveorgans

Ganglia

Nephridia

Longitudinalmuscle

Prentice Hall chapter 27

kingdom animalia phylum annelida1
Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: Annelida
  • Annelida AKA Segmented Worms
  • Skin is moist for oxygen permeability
  • Closed Circulatory system
  • Blood contains IRON bases PROTEIN HEMOGLOBIN. Red color
  • Double diffusion of O2
    • through skin then body cells
  • Absorbs digested end products using typhlosole
transport similarities
Transport Similarities

Heartlike structure

Hearts

Heart

Bloodvessels

Sinusesand organs

Bloodvessels

Heartlikestructures

Insect:Open Circulatory System

Annelid:Closed Circulatory System

kingdom animalia phylum arthropoda1
Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: Arthropoda
  • Open circulatory system, meaning the blood flows into the tissue and comes into direct contact with all the cells.
  • Blood is transparent-green, lacks iron based hemoglobin. ITS COPPER BASED
  • Blood only carries nutrients. NO GASES
  • Special tubes transport the oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  • Has only one blood vessel, the aorta
  • Heart pumps the blood through the aorta and into the tissue or body spaces where materials are exchanged.
  • The blood returns to the heart through valve like openings in the heart wall. SINUSES