Learning and What Affects It Getting Ready to Teach
Learning Domains in Physical Education Psychomotor: what students can physically do and decisions about skills Cognitive: what students know about skills, rules, strategy Affective: how students behave during physical activity and how they feel about activity
Your challenge • Develop learning experiences that integrate or focus on all three learning domains whenever possible
Criteria for Designing a Learning Experience • The L. E. must have the potential to improve the motor performance/activity skills of students. • The L. E. must provide maximal activity or practice time for all students at an appropriate level of ability.
Criteria for Designing a Learning Experience • The L.E. must be appropriate for the experiential level of all students. • The L.E. should have the potential to integrate psychomotor, affective, and cognitive educational goals whenever possible.
Unique Contribution of Physical Education The Psychomotor Domain: teaching motor skills, movements, manipulative skills, and fitness necessary to competent movers (NASPE Standard 1) Competence is defined as skillful enough to enjoy participation. That means competence is different for each student
Open vs. Closed Skills • Open Skills: regulated by changing events in the environment • Examples: ?? • Closed Skills: environmental conditions are relatively stable • Examples??
Continuum of Skills Open Skills Closed Skills BasketballGolf PuttTennis BB Foul ShotForehand Jump Shot
Teaching Progression • Closed before open • Environment is easier to handle • Fewer variables to teach to • Easier to focus on skill acquisition • Attempting to get students to produce consistent skill performances • Open: Once consistent increase the level of complexity
Stages of Motor Learning(Fitts and Posner, 1967) • Cognitive Stage: • Learner uses information on skill performance to develop a motor plan. • Thought processes are heavily involved as learner consciously attends to task. • Student uses a high degree of concentration to perform the skill.
Stages of Motor Learning(Fitts and Posner, 1967) • Associative Stage: • Learners concentrate on temporal patterns and refinement of mechanics. • Complex skills have learners at this stage for long periods of time. • Feedback is helpful at this stage. • Learner can begin to attend to the environment.
Stages of Motor Learning(Fitts and Posner, 1967) • Automatic Stage: • Learner can perform automatically. • Movement itself does not require cognitive attention. • Performance is consistent. • Performance can adapt to the environmental requirements.
Requirements for Learning a Motor Skill • Prerequisites: Learner must have prerequisite skills in order to learn new skills. • Clear idea of the task: Learner must have a motor program for executing the skill.
Requirements for Learning a Motor Skill • Motivational/Attentional Disposition to the Skill: Learners must be actively engaged and find the learning meaningful in some way.
Requirements for Learning a Motor Skill • Practice: Motor performance is usually inconsistent and variable. • Opportunities to respond
Requirements for Learning a Motor Skill • Feedback: This can help with error detection. Feedback also maintains motivation and focus of the task.
Assignments Be ready for Lab 1 (pip packet page 31-33)which will happen in the gymnasium (wear tennis shoes) Read Ch 1-2 if you haven’t done so already. Begin to think about this material with regard to teaching students motor skills in physical education