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Immigration and Slavery. US History I – Unit 1 Goals for today: Understand the origins of early American colonists Learn the names of the colonies and key cities. Migration from England. 90% of colonists came from England Half of the English immigrants were INDENTURED SERVANTS

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immigration and slavery

Immigration and Slavery

US History I – Unit 1

Goals for today:

Understand the origins of early American colonists

Learn the names of the colonies and key cities

migration from england
Migration from England
  • 90% of colonists came from England
  • Half of the English immigrants were INDENTURED SERVANTS
  • Prior to 1660, most immigrants left Europe because of religious or political turmoil
  • After 1660, economies improved and political and religious conflicts diminished
scottish and scotch irish
Scottish and Scotch-Irish
  • Scottish immigration soared because of the creation of Great Britain in 1707
  • Scots became colonial officials, governors, and wealthy merchants
  • First stream came from the Scottish Lowlands
  • Second stream came from the Scottish Highlands
  • Third stream came from Ulster in Northern Ireland (Scotch-Irish)
  • 250,000 Scotch-Irish immigrated to the colonies in the 1700s
the germans
The Germans
  • 100,000 Germans immigrated to the colonies during the 1700s
  • Almost all came from the Rhine Valley
  • These immigrants felt pushed from Europe by war, taxes, and religious persecution
  • Germans primarily settled in the Pennsylvania and Maryland colonies
  • In Pennsylvania, a German immigrant could obtain a farm six times larger than a typical farm in Germany
questions
Questions
  • For what reasons did Scots and Germans emigrate from their homelands?
  • What is an indentured servant?
  • ASSIGNMENT DUE FRIDAY, AUGUST 19
    • Research your own family tree
    • Begin with yourself at the bottom and work as high as you can
    • Be sure to include the country in which each of your family members were born
    • Go as far back as you can
how it should look
How it should look:

James Daniels, Sr.

USA

Charlotte Roady

USA

Jack Gilkerson

USA

Katherine Wecker

USA

James Daniels, Jr.

August 19, 1952

Calexico, CA USA

Jacqueline Gilkerson

July 28, 1952

Little Rock, AR USA

Jesse Daniels

September 30, 1983

Alton, IL USA

slavery in the colonies begins
Slavery in the Colonies Begins
  • In the early 1600s, Africans were treated much like indentured servants
  • Freed blacks could own land, vote, and many had slaves of their own
  • By mid-1600s, the colonies began to pass laws supporting the permanent slavery of Africans
  • Other laws stated that the children of slaves were born into the institution
  • These laws were supported by the racist idea that people of African origin were inferior to whites
the transatlantic slave trade
The Transatlantic Slave Trade
  • Almost 1.5 million slaves were being dispersed throughout the British Empire
  • 250,000 alone came to the colonies via the West Indies
  • Traders purchased slaves from African chiefs, who usually took them by force or as prisoners of war
  • Slaves came to America as part of a three part voyage called the TRIANGULAR TRADE
the middle passage
The Middle Passage
  • Shippers carried slaves across the Atlantic to North America along a route known as the MIDDLE PASSAGE
  • The voyage could last two months or more and the slaves were separated from family, branded with hot irons, placed in shackles, and jammed into overcrowded dark holes below deck
  • At least 10% of the captured slaves crossing the Atlantic died en route
  • Here is a visual adaptation of the horrific journey
slavery in the north and south
Slavery in the North and South
  • Enslaved Africans were a small minority in New England and the Middle Colonies
  • Most enslaved in the North worked as deckhands, sailors, and house servants
  • In the Southern colonies, slaves were used to raise labor-intensive crops like tobacco, rice, indigo, or sugar
  • In South Carolina, slaves outnumbered whites
  • Most slaves worked 12 hour days with the bare minimum needed to survive
rebels and runaways
Rebels and Runaways
  • 1739 – Stono, SC – 100 slaves killed 20 whites before suffering defeat and execution
  • Many escaped either to Native American villages or to Florida (Spain welcomed runaway slaves in order to weaken the British Empire)
  • Many more stayed on the plantations and resist by working slowly, feigning illness, pretending ignorance, or breaking tools
  • A few slaves did earn their freedom, either by purchasing it or by being set free
questions1
Questions
  • What was the Triangular Trade?
  • What was the Middle Passage?
  • How did the laws concerning enslaved Africans sent to the 13 colonies change in the 1700s?
  • How did slavery differ in the North and the South?
  • In which American colonies did most enslaved Africans live? Why?