Chapter 5. Soundings. There are four basic types of sounding observations. (1) Radiosondes An instrument package lifted by a balloon with sensors for pressure, temperature, humidity. (2) Pibals (Pilot balloons)
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Combines radiosonde (instrument package) and method of tracking:
Tracked by either a radio direction finder antenna, a radar, or by GPS
- dropped from an aircraft or from a constant pressure balloon
Radiosonde/rawinsonde - a circle.
Aircraft observation - a square.
Satellite derived wind - a star.
A Log-pressure diagram
A linear pressure diagram
A Stuve diagram logrithmic vertical scale.
A Skew-T log-P diagram
plotted on the diagram has a different meaning depending on which set of lines you are considering.
Po = reference pressure
Rd=gas constant for dry air 287J/kg
cp=specific heat of dry air at constant pressure, 1004J/kg
ro = 0.611kPa
Lv=2.5 x 106 J/oK
Ld=2.83 x 106 J/oK
I am using “r” to represent mixing ratio. Sometimes “e” is used.
Also, remember that
So you could substitute in for density.
Is Absolutely Unstable Air.
Is Absolutely Stable Air.
Is Conditionally Unstable Air.