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  1. Applications of agro meteorology in agriculture Dr. Rajasree.G, Dr. P. Rajasekharan & Dr. Shalini Pillai. P Kerala State Planning Board, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala

  2. Agro Meteorology

  3. Agro meteorology

  4. Estimating crop production • Determining maturity dates • Modifying environment

  5. Crop-weather relations in agriculture

  6. Applications-agro meteorology

  7. Crop –weather relations • The surface air temperature influences the nut development, copra and oil yield in coconut. • Pre-monsoon and monsoon rainfall accounts for 37 per cent of yield variability in Ist crop of rice. • Some pests severe in coconut during summer, others in rainy season. • High maximum and minimum temperatures and relative humidity favourable during the establishment phase in rice. High maximum temperature is favourable during the ripening period., Huda et al. (1975) . • At Coimbatore and Aduthurai, additional rainfall was found to be detrimental to the rice crop during sowing, tillering and flowering periods, while it was found to be beneficial during elongation ( Sreenivasan and Banerjee, 1978).

  8. Crop-pests-disease relations • Gall midge incidence in rice -positively correlated with rainfall and negatively correlated with maximum temperature (Thomas et al., 1975). • Favourable conditions for the infestation of rice gall midge were found to be Tmax of 35.2oC, Tmin of 19.8oC with a RH of 89.94% and mean rainfall of 4.5 to 62.5 mm (per 5 day period) • In Northern Kerala, blast disease is very severe in winter when the minimum temperature goes below 20oC (Premnathanet al., 1999). • High stem borer infestation was noted in paddy planted from October to November and low infestations in crop planted from June to October. The pest infestation is negatively correlated with rainfall and minimum temperature and positively with maximum temperature

  9. Plant Disease Triangle Amount of Disease Environment Leaf wetness Temperature Pathogen Amount of inoculum Virulence Crop Susceptibility, health

  10. Potential impacts of changes in moisture on plant disease • Pathogens dependent on free moisture for infection are likely to be more successful eg. root pathogens Leaf wetness sensor & weather monitor Healthy and diseased bean roots

  11. Potential impacts of changes in moisture on plant disease • Higher atmospheric water vapor concentrations favor fungal spore production, accelerating epidemic development

  12. Insects and the Environment • Insects are cold-blooded • Development rates rise and fall with temperature • Temperature is the most important factor influencing: • Development • Reproduction rate • Survival • Distribution

  13. Crop-Weather-Pest interactions

  14. Pest & disease Surveillance & forewarnings

  15. WEATHER INFORMATION IN FARM MANAGEMENT Cultivars Selection • Choosing windows for Sowing/harvesting operations • Irrigation scheduling – optimal water use • Mitigation from adverse weather events such as frost, low temperature, heavy rainfall – at critical crop stages • Nutrient Management : Fertilizer application • Plant Protection : Pesticide/fungicide spraying schedules • Feed, Health and Shelter Management for Livestock [Optimal temperature for dairy/ hatchery

  16. Aberrant weather conditions

  17. Aberrant weather conditions Flash Floods East Fort, Thiruvananthapuram- 30.12. 2011 East Fort, Thiruvananthapuram- 28.12. 2011

  18. Extreme climate events Drought Floods

  19. More intense and longer droughts have been observed over wider areas since the 1970s

  20. Cold wave Frost damage is the number one weather hazard, on a planetary scale, as far as agricultural and forest economical losses are concerned Papaya Ice Mustard Jatropha Frost damage to the different crops (Hisar, 2005-06)

  21. Heat Wave (2003) - Damage to Poultry • Andhra Pradesh • 20 lakhs birds died in May & June 2003 • Highest in E. Godavari-7 Lakhs; W. Godavari – 5 lakhs • Egg production decreased in the state by 25% • Total Loss by 27 Crores

  22. Climate Change

  23. Climate change Vs. Agriculture

  24. Climate Change effects- Agriculture

  25. Climate change & crop productivity Source : ICRISAT, 2009

  26. Climate Change

  27. Focus of Climate Change adaptations in Agriculture

  28. Climate Change adaptation strategy for agriculture

  29. Crop Based Approaches Crops and varieties that fit into new cropping systems and seasons Development of varieties with changed duration Varieties for high temperature, drought, inland salinity and submergence tolerance Crops and varieties that tolerate coastal salinity and sea water inundation Varieties which respond to high CO2 Varieties with high fertilizer and radiation use efficiencyiciency

  30. Crop-Crop Diversity for adapting to increased pest incidence Creation of crop diversity by the introduction of another crop is known as crop- crop diversity The insitu culturing of natural enemies lead to reduction of insect pests in diversified crop conditions. Sorghum, groundnut and blackgram as intercrops with pigeonpea: Cluster bean, cowpea and greengram with castor reduced the incidence of the insect pests. These results can go as component of Low External input IPM modules

  31. Intercropping - the best way to Adapt to climate change by small holders

  32. Climate change mitigations in agriculture Mitigation

  33. Applications-agro meteorology Climate Change- tools for future strategy

  34. Long term climate trends vs. Cassava production • The seasonal rainfall influence on cassava production in Kerala Materials Monthly rain fall data- 1961-2009( IITM) Cassava production – 1961- 2009( DES, GoK)

  35. Long term climate trends vs. Cassava production SW monsoon influenced the cassava production declining trend in SW monsoon, increasing trend in Post monsoon RF, decrease in RF in June & July, Increase in RF in Aug & Sept North- East Monsoon & Pre – Monsoon rains had no effect

  36. Weather products & services in agriculture

  37. Weather forecasts

  38. Decision support systems • Crop-weather- pest-disease- management information to the farming community • Web based services farmer services

  39. Crop-weather insurance • Weather Based Crop Insurance aims to mitigate the hardship of the insured farmers against the likelihood of financial loss on account of anticipated crop loss resulting from incidence of adverse conditions of weather parameters like rainfall, temperature, frost, humidity etc. • Weather based Crop Insurance uses weather parameters as ‘proxy’ for crop yields in compensating the cultivators for deemed crop losses. • National Agriculture Insurance Company- Weather based Crop Insurance scheme

  40. Application of agro meteorology Crop-weather calendars • Crop- weather- farm operational calendar • Crop-weather-pest management calendar • Crop-weather-disease management calendars

  41. Crop- farming activity calendar

  42. Special initiatives of KSPB

  43. PROBLEMS OF EXISTING WEATHER NETWORK • Lack of sufficient network to draw weather data • Absence of agroclimatic zone wise advisory service • Absence of sufficient location specific research data • Issues in dissemination • Technical problems of forecast

  44. "ANTARIKSH" PROJECT • A multi institutional collaborative project jointly undertaken by the Indian Space Research Organisation, CUSAT and State Planning Board linking with KAU and Dep. of Agriculture aimed at augmenting current meteorological network in Kerala so as to provide full fledged crop weather advisory services to farmers • Initiated in 2004 by State Planning Board

  45. ANTARIKSH-Objectives • Strengthening Weather Network in the State • Dissemination of weather data • Weather Advisory Services • Generation of location specific data for research • and development purpose • Data Support for Weather Insurance • Development of crop weather information system

  46. So Far …. • ISRO developed AWS for the first time with indigenous technology • Established 56 AWS • Set up a portal • CUSAT prepared reports • KAU generating crop weather information systems • Developed Block level/AEU wise forecasting models