Loading in 2 Seconds...
Loading in 2 Seconds...
This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI (21531020) Developing Needs Assessment Instruments for a Proactive Approach to Students with ADHD and Autism Spectrum Disorder Tomone Takahashi (Shinshu University, JAPAN) email@example.com
Overview • Developing questionnaires to evaluate students’ support needs related with ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) and ADHD • Reliability and validity of the questionnaires • An application of the questionnaires to early intervention for students with special needs
Proactive approach to students’ physical and mental health • Proactive student support system has been developed in order to prevent serious physical and mental problems. • Physical health: • University-wide health examination • Short interview with physician (medical doctor) • Mental health • Mental health checklist is administered to all freshmen • Counselors contact with students
Students with ASD, ADHD, LD: Rising issue • Increasing number of students with ADHD, ASD, LD • Academic and behavioral problems are reported • Many students are not aware of the possible disabilities • Developing secondary emotional and psychological problems • Proactive approach is necessary
Needs Assessment Questionnaire • Symptoms checklist → Needs Assessment • There are students with clear symptoms but without support needs • Needs assessment is necessary for early intervention • Developing needs assessment questionnaires for students with ASD and ADHD
Developing Support Needs Questionnaire for students with ASD (SNQ-ASD) 1 • Constructing a list of items describing difficulties persons with ASD experience • Case reports • Books written by persons with ASD • Existing self-rating questionnaire • Items are categorized using qualitative content analysis (Myering, 1983)
Developing Support Needs Questionnaire for students with ASD (SNQ-ASD) 2 • Questionnaire items that represent the items in the category were written • “having trouble” or “having difficulty” are included in the items so that they can be easily connected with support needs
Developing Support Needs Questionnaire for students with ASD (SNQ-ASD) 3 • SNQ-ASD • 4-point rating scale • 25-items • 2 subscales: Social difficulties, Autism related difficulties • An item was added asking whether he/she wants to consult with specialists • 3 point scale: Yes– cannot decide – No • Asking contact phone number or e-mail address
Reliability and Validity of SNQ-ASD Self-rating questionnaire evaluating ASD related symptoms Self-rating questionnaire evaluating social anxiety
Application of the SNQ-ASD • The SNQ-ASD was administered to 1909 freshmen during their first semester. • Students who expressed interest in talking more about their issues: 118 (5.9%) • Students who wrote contact information: 79 (3.9%) • Students who met with student support coordinator: 16 (0.8%) • Referred to counselors: 2 (0.1%)
Application of the SNQ-ASD • Primary concerns (N = 16) • Social issues: 10 • Mental Health: 2 • Physical Health: 2 • Academic issues: 2 • Some students showed difficulties possibly related with ASD such as remembering faces and talking in unique ways.
Conclusion 1: SNQ-ASD • It may be more sensitive to the difficulties that students with social anxiety or other psychological issues than those with ASD • Students with ASD may not be able to objectively evaluate their own difficulties • Students with ASD may not have as many difficulties during the early stage of their college life
Developing Support Needs Questionnaire for students with ADHD (SNQ-ADHD) 1 • Constructing a list of items describing difficulties persons with ADHD experience • Items are categorized using KJ method (Kawakita, 1967) • Items were written as the same way as the ones in SNQ-ASD
Developing Support Needs Questionnaire for students with ADHD (SNQ-ADHD) 2 • SNQ-ADHD • 4-point rating scale • 49-items • 7 subscales: distractibility, difficulty in planning, impulsivity, organizational problems, sleep problem, inattention, lack of social skills, clumsiness • An item was added asking whether he/she wants to consult with specialists • 3 point scale: Yes– cannot decide – No
Reliability and Validity of SNQ-ADHD 1 2 weeks interval Self rating questionnaire evaluating ADHD symptoms Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test: Cognitive test that evaluate sustained attention and impulsivity
Reliability and Validity of SNQ-ADHD 2 Profile of Mood States: A self-rating questionnaire evaluating mood or affective states.
Interview with students • Participants: 12 students (3 male & 9 female) who scored high on the SNQ-ADHD and volunteered for interview session. • Mean = 197.3, SD = 39.0 • Mean of 646 students = 148.5. SD = 40.5 • Procedure: 60 minutes semi-structured interview.
Interview with students • All students talked about episodes similar to those with ADHD. • “I have lost my wallet three times.” • “I cannot estimate the time I need for preparation and am often late.” • Some of them have had symptoms since their childhood. • “Teachers wrote I am forgetful in my report card” • I was late even when I was in elementary school.”
Interview with students • Many of them did not seek for formal support. • “ This is something I have to take care by myself.” • “I have never thought that I can consult with other people about this issue.” • They develop strategies to take care of their issues. • They use informal peer support.
Conclusions 2: SNQ-ADHD • It seems to be valid to evaluate attention related difficulties of students. • Many students do not consider using formal supports for the difficulties. • Informal supports seemed to be effective for those students. • Some of them showed interests in learning strategies and skills to change the situation
Future Directions • Collecting validity data by administering the questionnaires to students with diagnosis • Application to evaluating the effectiveness of support services. • Developing combined short form questionnaire • Developing skill training workshops for those with difficulties related with ADHD or ASD
Thank you for listening Please contact for English version of the questionnaires. firstname.lastname@example.org Special thanks to: Natsumi Yamamoto Misa Iwabuchi