robotic aircraft for public safety raps overview n.
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  2. UAS or “DRONE”

  3. Introduction • RAPS Purpose • To provide potential users (public, first responder organizations and others) with information needed to make informed decisions on acquiring and deploying SUAS to save lives and protect property • RAPS testing focuses on fire response, search and rescue operations, HAZMAT response, border security, natural disasters, and law enforcement • RAPS provides a unique ‘Consumer Reports’ data base; our products are unbiased, third-party evaluations of current and emerging SUAS technologies • Impact – RAPS directly benefits • Users and manufacturers • FAA by making important contributions toward establishing performance standards and best-practice guidelines

  4. Approach • Evaluate performance and utility of mature, DOD-developed SUAS-sensor combinations using: • Key capability measures • One test – ours – applied uniformly to all systems evaluated • Realistic operational scenarios and environments • Test reports produced for each system tested

  5. Key Test Factors • Operational capabilities • Example: Does SUAS support routine operations by improving situational awareness? • Operational utility • Example: Is SUAS easy and efficient to assemble, launch, operate, recover, and pack up? • Example: Is video output seen effectively at multiple remote terminals? • Technology transition • Example: Is FAA authorization permitting SUAS operation in the NAS likely?

  6. Scope • Test categories • Scripted operational scenarios • Operational utility assessments • Use in National Airspace System • Technical scope • Daytime testing, < 400 ft, < 25 lb • RAMPS: Robotic Aircraft for Maritime Public Safety • New S&T-USCG RDC partnership to test SUAS for maritime applications • New/future capabilities • Onboard collision avoidance; counter-spoofing;severe storm response

  7. Border Security • Rapid response • Improved situational awareness and agent safety • High-value assets in remote, inaccessible, dangerous AORs • Relatively low unit costs could provide: • Many more air assets for target identification and tracking • Eventually, complete aerial coverage of the U.S. border 7

  8. RAPS Test Range Oklahoma Training Center – Unmanned Systems (OTC-US) Location: Elgin, OK, adjacent to Ft. Sill U.S. Army Post and within Ft. Sill restricted airspace OTC-US site (red outline) OTC-US is a test facility of the Oklahoma State University’s University Multispectral Laboratory “Liberty City” site (urban scenarios)

  9. Vendor Participation • We developed 21 Performance Goals (see Back-Up) and released an RFI (Sept. 2012) inviting manufacturer participation: 72 white papers received • S&T–Manufacturer CRADAs enable testing • No exchange of funds • Vendors provide: SUAS, sensors; pilots, sensor operators, flight support team and equipment • To date, 15 CRADAs for testing 26 SUAS DHS S&T is leveraging hundreds of millions of dollars of SUAS technology developed by DOD and the IC, including tens of millions of dollars of industry IR&D investments

  10. Test Reports • Reports • Created by S&T RAPS team for users • Approved for release by DHS S&T • Posted and archived online • Websites and access • Gov’t employees & gov’t-sponsored stakeholders access RAPS Reports via S&T Communities of Practicesite, RAPS Community of Practicesite • Access controlled by S&T & RAPS PM­

  11. Test Reports, cont’d • Test Reports • Content: Complete test results, including scoring summary tables; general SUAS information; company-proprietary cost and other information • Audience: Restricted to government employees and government-sponsored stakeholders interested in RAPS (potential users) • Access to Test Reports: • Available upon request to RAPS Program Manager • Available online at Robotic Aircraft for Public Safety (RAPS) SecureCommunity of Practice website • Executive Summaries of Test Reports • Content: Highlights of test results (non-proprietary; company-approved) • Audience: Approved for public release (goal: to reach a wide readership) • Access to Executive Summaries: • Available upon request to RAPS Program Manager • Available online at Robotic Aircraft for Public Safety (RAPS)Community of Practice website

  12. Rating Summaries To facilitate SUAS comparisons, each Report contains Rating Summaries of results in our 54 Performance Measures in 5 Assessment categories: A1. Law Enforcement; A2. Search and Rescue; A3. Fire Response; A4. Operational Utility; A5. Operation in NAS Above: Sample Rating summary information Performance Measure (PM) Unit, Rating (bar-graph), T & O markers Qual., Quant. Rating Scoring Keys for Qualitative and Quantitative Ratings

  13. RAPS Schedule (Cycle 1)

  14. RAPS Schedule (Cycle 1)

  15. Lessons Learned • No one platform performs well in all scenarios • Fixed-wing aircraft: • Very good in search and rescue (SAR), fire monitoring • Some fixed wing SUAS need operating areas > 200 ft radius • Launch and recovery zones • Deep stall landings affected by winds • Rotary-winged aircraft: • Perform well in crime, accident, and arson scene investigation, and in SWAT • Hover ability is very beneficial • Some systems are relatively quiet, providing stealth, and can “perch” • Up to 50-min endurance was tested/verified – winds are not a limiting factor (flying in winds up to 30 mph) • In winds, maintain commanded flight profiles better than fixed wing aircraft

  16. Lessons Learned, cont’d • Essential capabilities for effective, high-use operations: • Integrated EO and IR sensors on a stabilized, gimbaled platform • SAR aided by ability to switch between two modes to validate Targets of Interest (TOI) • Dual sensors are valuable in urban scenarios where shadows are prevalent • Geo-referenced EO and IR full motion video • Needed for chain of custody and TOI location accuracy • Collision avoidance: • For some systems, the best way to avoid oncoming traffic may be to initiate immediate landing – but climb and descend speeds may not be sufficient to avoid collision • Other findings: • Quiet systems developed by DOD may need audible augmentation during SAR • The fuel cell SUASwe tested is a significant new capability: > 8 hr endurance • Note to potential users: It requires > 12 min for warm-up prior to launch

  17. Future Outlook • 2012 • Range selection; advocacy • Define program scope and set key partnerships • RFI; Test Plan; contracting • Stand up: • Processes to work with manufacturers, create and disseminate reports • Liaison to DHS privacy working group • Conduct 19 flight test weeks • Analyze and disseminate results from Cycle 1 testing • New RFI; new Test Plan • Expanded test scope (goals): • Fire/HAZMAT/disaster, SAR response • Specialized SUAS sensors • Larger, more complex operational scenarios • Counter-spoofing and anti-jamming capabilities • Airworthiness • Severe storm response pilot • RAMPS new start: Maritime testing, USCG RDC-led collaboration • Transition Plan for future funding and management structure Cycle 1, FY2012-14 Cycle 2, FY2015-16

  18. Project Office, Web Links RAPS Project Support Officer: • Mr. Kevin Spence: (202) 254-2235 RAPS and related Web Links: • http://www.firstresponder.govis a public-access DHS S&T website • Government employees and government-sponsored stakeholders interested in RAPS may request access to the RAPS Test Reports via, which is the gateway to access S&T’s First Responder Communities of Practicesite,, which is the gateway to the RAPS Community of Practicesite. Access is controlled by DHS S&T and the RAPS Program Manager. • RAPS Request for information (RFI), released September 24, 2012: • RAPS Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA), approved Nov. 16, 2012, was the first such document addressing unmanned aircraft ever published – anywhere in the world:

  19. SUAS Performance Goals