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Conducting Ethical Research. Slides Prepared by Alison L. O’Malley. Passer Chapter 3. Codes of Research Ethics. What is/are ethics? Ethical concerns permeate every aspect of the research process. Name and describe a historical event that influenced contemporary research ethics codes. 4.

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conducting ethical research

Conducting EthicalResearch

Slides Prepared by Alison L. O’Malley

Passer Chapter 3

codes of research ethics
Codes of Research Ethics

What is/are ethics?

Ethical concerns permeate every aspect of the research process.

Name and describe a historical event that influenced contemporary research ethics codes.


the nuremberg code 1947
The Nuremberg Code (1947)
  • Set of ethical principles essential for medical experiments to be “permissible” (also applies to behavioral research)
  • Voluntary consent with freedom to withdraw at any time
  • Information prior to giving consent about research purpose and potential risks
  • Avoidance of unnecessary risk
  • Results should be of sufficient value to outweigh risks to participants
  • Qualified scientists must conduct the research
the belmont report 1979
The Belmont Report (1979)
  • Respect
  • Beneficence
  • Justice

Concerns for these ethical principles govern participant selection, consent, and risk-benefit assessment.


apa ethics code 2010
APA Ethics Code (2010)
  • Beneficence and nonmaleficence (huh?)
  • Fidelity and responsibility
  • Integrity
  • Justice
  • Respect

How does each principle apply to the

conduction of psychological science?

institutional review the irb
Institutional Review: The IRB
  • Who sits on your institution’s IRB?
  • How does your IRB assess the degree of risk to participants?
  • What’s the difference between anonymity and confidentiality?


the irb



Full Review

Describe each form of IRB review.

types of harm
Types of Harm

Considered in judging degree of risk to participants

  • Physical harm (e.g., pain)
  • Psychological harm (e.g., anxiety)
  • Social harm and loss of privacy (e.g., sensitive information disclosed)
  • Economic or legal harm (e.g., accident after research-induced sleep deprivation)
excerpt of sample informed consent
Excerpt of Sample Informed Consent
  • I have been fully informed of the above-described procedure with its possible benefits and risks. I understand that I may view my responses at a later date and be fully de-briefed on them if I so desire. I also understand that my responses will be maintained in a confidential manner by the researcher. I voluntarily give permission for my participation in this study. I know that the investigator and her associates will be available to answer any questions I may have. I understand that I am free to withdraw this consent and discontinue participation in this project at any time without penalty. I am also aware that I will receive a copy of this Informed Consent form for my records at this time.
  • Participant Signature ________________________________________


informed consent
Informed Consent

What other elements must be reflected in an informed consent?

Is informed consent absolutely necessary?


informed consent1
Informed Consent

How does assent come into play when working with vulnerable populations?


  • Passive deception: Researchers withhold info that might influence participants’ decision to provide informed consent
  • Active deception: Researchers mislead participants about some aspect of a study
  • If participants receive bogus negative feedback about their task performance, what sort of deception is this? Is it justifiable?
  • How was deception employed in Milgram’s (1963, 1974) obedience studies?

Identify the



What are the elements of a

thorough debriefing?


Bye now.

nonhuman animal research
Nonhuman Animal Research
  • Why is psychological research conducted on animals?
  • Animal Welfare Act regulates use of warm-blooded animals with exception of mice, rats, and birds
institutional review the irb1
Institutional Review: The IRB
  • Who sits on your institution’s IACUC?
  • Ethical standards for animal research revolve around
    • Reduction
    • Refinement
    • Replacement

Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare


tell your story with integrity
Tell Your Story with Integrity
  • Represent yourself accurately
  • Report results ethically
    • Fabrication and falsification are FRAUD
    • …and what about questionable research practices (QRPs)?

Should data stay

or go?

tell your story with integrity1
Tell Your Story with Integrity
  • Does an idea belong to you, or did it originate with someone else?
  • Did you know it’s possible to plagiarize yourself?
  • Paraphrase and cite with care!

When it comes to research ethics, there are many shades of grey…

  • Ask critical questions. Seek advice from trusted teachers and mentors. You’re not in this alone!