CHALLENGES IN EDUCATION: A Dalit PERSPECTIVE. Regional Consultation on Right to Education Act & the New Mission Imperatives for Churches & Christian Education Institutions Organised by RCDRC, Raipur Chhattisgarh 10-11 September 2010 Presented by Goldy M. George
Regional Consultation on
Right to Education Act & the New Mission Imperatives for Churches & Christian Education Institutions
RCDRC, Raipur Chhattisgarh
10-11 September 2010
Goldy M. George
(DalitMuktiMorcha & PhD Scholar TISS)
The Outcaste (Avarnas) within the varnashram
3000 years social oppression, political exploitation, economically deprived & culturally dominated.
Menial job , service provider, facilitator, etc.
Untouchables, asparshiya, depressed classes, harijans, etc.
Officially known as Scheduled Castes (GoI Act, 1935)
Another understanding on Dalits brings all the deprived groups SC, ST, OBC and minorities
Dalit means broken people (Sanskrit, Hebrew, Latin)
A history, a people, a culture
Resistance for justice, equality and peace
Strongly believes in equality, liberty and fraternity
A sense of culture with a balance between nature and human
Democratic principles based on consensus
Respect for women
Recognition and adoration of ancestors
First used in modern Indian literature by Phule
Dalit Panthers popularised in 1970s with it anti-caste, anti-class movement.
Total Population – 166 million
Percentage – 16.6% of total population of the country
No. of castes notified as SC – 1231
Literacy rate – 54.69% (census 2001); 57% (Thorat)
12% in the rural areas and 28% in the urban areas are in small business
In 2000, about two-thirds of SC rural households were landless or near-landless, compared with one-third amongst the non-SCs
Fewer than one-third of S.C. households had acquired access to capital assets compared with 60 per cent among non-SCs
60% of SC households depend on wage labour compared with 25% among non-SC
In 1999-2000, about 36% of SCs were poor as compared with 21 per cent among non-SCs
Prevalence of poverty is particularly high among SC households that were engaged in wage labour in rural areas (50%) and urban areas (60%).
On an average about 23,000 cases of human rights violations and atrocities are registered with the police annually.
Rate of conviction – less than 1%
Out of about 800 accredited journalists in India, there is none from Dalits
As per CSDS Survey, not even one Dalit is present out of 315 key decision makers in media.
In top 100 industrialists and rich people no single Dalit remains
So far only two Dalit Judges have found place in Supreme Court
There is no actor and actress in Bollywood (Film Industry).
No Dalit has been elevated to become the Cabinet Secretary
As per SCP, the amount of expenditure of budget should be according to the population but this rule has been violated (e.g., in 2007-2008 the total plan budget was 205100 crores and distribution to Dalits was only 12535.75 crores, it should have been 32816 crores; short fall of 20280 crores.
Out of 163 Missions of government of India abroad, about half a dozen SC/ST IFS Officers have been posted as heads of mission but none of them have been posted as heads of the missions / embassies in A and B category countries.
Dalit enrollment in graduate education is 8.37% as against 91.63% for others.
15% reservation in KendriyaVidyalaya
Also reservation based on the population ration is allotted by State Government run schools
GoI also reservesed 27% in Higher Education
Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in primary classes (I-V) is 88.30 %, for middle classes (VI-VIII) is 71.86%
38% Government schools, Dalits children have separate sitting arrangements.
20% Dalit children are not permitted to access drinking water from the same source.
Dropout at primary stage (I-V) – 36.56%
Dropout at middle stage (VI-VIII) – 59.42%
Dropout at secondary stage (IX-XII) – 73.13% (MoHR)
Trends of Literacy rates – a comparison
Access to Education (The Enrolment)
Retention in School (Problem of drop out)
Educational Provisions (environment with school and outside)
High level of enrollment as per government data
But the data suggests that the higher the class the lesser the level of drop outs
Quality of education
Problems compelling children to drop out (within or outside).
Social exclusion in education exists
Dalit parents are not welcomed to the schools
Several prejudices and biases against Dalit community continue to be practiced
Discriminatory attitudes, body languages, approaches of teachers
Mid-day meal and untouchability practices
Economic issues and efforts to resolve it.
Denial of admission on various gr0unds
Segregation in sitting arrangements
Children being asked to perform tasks traditionally done by Dalits (eg: sweeping the school grounds, classrooms, bringing water for teachers etc.)
In most of the classroom situations, Dalit children sit on the back seats
In many states the reports of untouchability in drinking water and mid day meal scheme have been documented
There are many provisions for encouraging Dalit children to study like scholarships, uniforms, books, mid day meal (for all) etc. these are not in proportion to the population of dalit children’s.
The access to these resources takes lot of pain and majority do not get and therefore give up midway.
Even if it reaches to them, an insufficiency prevails.
Dalit parents are treated inhumanly by administration.
Many a times these resources are not provided to Dalit children. There is either delay or nothing is provided.
Trends and tendencies of universalisation
Schools situated in non-Dalit locality.
Non-Dalits owe those schools not Dalits
SarvaShikshaAbhiyan (SSA) does not have any specific program for Dalit children.
Ignoring the issues of untouchability and discrimination in education have been ignored
A culture of non-implementation.
A culture of dominance and violence
A culture of rule of the society
From co-option to co-operation; (from discriminatory educational patterns to inclusive one)
From tokenism to Dalit agenda (shift in educational politics with special focus on Dalit girl education)
Affirmation of identity (pro-human learning needs to be promoted)
Towards a larger common agenda (Universalisation of Education with specific focus on Dalits)
Rebuilding the culture of résistance (include history of Dalit leaders and stalwarts as part of educational curriculum)
Alliance building with other marginalised and oppressed groups (history of oppression based on caste, tribe, gender, occupation should be exposed)