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  1. A / AS Psychology.. Key Studies • Developmental Psychology • Key study • Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961)

  2. Bandura, Ross & Ross The Bobo Doll Study

  3. The Question The nature - nurture debate Do children learn behaviour from the behaviour they see around them?

  4. Specifically……. • Can aggressive behaviour be learned by observation? • NB: This was the study that triggered the TV violence debate

  5. Before we begin……. • 1 List two behaviours you think might be learned by watching others • 2 List two behaviours you think could not be learned in this way

  6. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • The participants • 72 children (Stanford University nursery school) • 36 boys & 36 girls • age range 37 months - 69 months • Mean age 52 months

  7. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • TWO adult ‘role models’ • one male and one female • and a female experimenter

  8. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • Method - an experiment • there were three conditions • 24 children in each condition

  9. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • The THREE CONDITIONS • Non aggressive condition • Aggressive condition • Control condition

  10. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • Non aggressive condition • and • Aggressive condition • There were male and female role models • 12 children in each

  11. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • Thus • 6 boys saw aggressive male • 6 boys saw non-aggressive male • 6 boys saw aggressive female • 6 boys saw non-aggressive female

  12. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • Thus • 6 girls saw aggressive female • 6 girls saw non-aggressive female • 6 girls saw aggressive male • 6 girls saw non-aggressive male

  13. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • Level 1 Independent Variable (IV) • aggressive or non-aggressive role model • Level 2 Independent variable (IV) • Same sex or opposite sex role model

  14. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • Write a TESTABLE two-tailed hypothesis for the study • Write a TESTABLE one-tailed hypothesis for the study

  15. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • In order to ensure that each group contained equally aggressive children they were all rated for aggression before the experiment • rated on - • physical aggression, verbal aggression • aggression to inanimate objects • aggression inhibition (self control)

  16. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • What happened then? • Children taken one at a time • Phase one of the experiment • Modelling the behaviour phase

  17. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • What happened then? • Phase two of the experiment • The AROUSAL phase • This was necessary to provoke the children

  18. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • What happened then? • Phase three of the experiment • The OBSERVATION phase

  19. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • What was observed? • The criteria • Imitative aggression • Non-imitative aggression • physical & verbal

  20. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • The results • IMITATION - the children in the aggressive condition imitated many of the modelled physical and verbal aggressive behaviours • they also imitated non-aggressive behaviours

  21. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • The results • IMITATION - the children in the NON- aggressive condition imitated very few of the modelled behaviour • 70% had zero scores

  22. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • The results • NON-IMITATION • the children in the aggressive condition displayed MUCH more non-imitative (non-copied) aggressive behaviour

  23. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • The results • NON-AGGRESSIVE CONDITION • the children in the non-aggressive condition spent more time playing with the toys (dolls etc) also more time doing nothing

  24. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • GENDER RESULTS • Boys imitated more physical aggression (but not verbal)

  25. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • GENDER RESULTS • Boys more aggressive after watching MALE aggressive model • Girls more aggressive after watching FEMALE aggressive model

  26. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • The conclusion • Learning can take place by observation • no classical or operant conditioning • Children more likely to learn from same sex models

  27. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • The conclusion • Bandura suggested Freud’s theory of identification may be used to explain how learning took place • Which of Freud’s stages might these children have been in?

  28. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • Thinking about BPS guidelines • WAS THIS STUDY ETHICAL? • What are the issues? • If not ethical WHY not?

  29. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • Thinking about methodology • Does this study have ecological validity? • If not ecologically valid - why not?

  30. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • Thinking about the participants • To whom can we generalise the findings?

  31. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • The debate as regards children learning aggressive behaviour from watching violence on TV • How might watching TV differ from the experience of the children in the Bandura experiment?

  32. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study • There were four predictions • (hypotheses) in this • MATCHED SUBJECTS experiment • What were they?

  33. Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study The end