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The European Forum on Quality Improvement in Health Care, Barcelona, April 18-20, 2007. Session C1 – The Campaign Approach to Spreading Improvement. Joseph McCannon Vice President Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Overview.

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Session C1 – The Campaign Approach to Spreading Improvement


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    1. The European Forum on Quality Improvement in Health Care, Barcelona, April 18-20, 2007 Session C1 – The Campaign Approach to Spreading Improvement Joseph McCannon Vice President Institute for Healthcare Improvement

    2. Overview • Brief context on the science of dissemination and approaches to spreading improvement in health care • A review of IHI’s campaigns (100,000 Lives Campaign and 5 Million Lives Campaign) • The campaign approach to spreading change (the “nuts and bolts” and some important lessons) • Time for questions and discussion

    3. Dissemination Science (The Basics)

    4. What Are We Talking About When We Say “Spread?” • Not butter • The science of taking a local improvement (intervention, idea, process) and actively disseminating it across a system • There are many possible definitions for “a system” (e.g. a hospital, a group of hospitals, a region, a country)

    5. 1998 MD Compliance Rates: (...we all have a long way to go) • Smoking cessation counseling: 21% • Mammography screening: 27% • Warfarin for Atrial Fibrillation: 40% • ACE inhibitors for CHF: 36% Agency for Health Research & Quality (AHRQ)

    6. Where is the Project? Successful changes High Degree of belief that the changes will result in improvement Changes still need further testing. There is a risk of moving to spread Moder- ate Unsuccessful proposed changes Low Pilot Prototype Spread

    7. 3 Key Questions • What do we want to spread? • Where (to whom) do we want to spread to by when? • How are we going to spread?

    8. Attributes of Innovation • Relative advantage • Compatibility • Complexity • Trialability • Observability from E. Rogers, 1995

    9. Adopter Categories Innovators Early Majority Late Majority Early Adopters Laggards 34% 2.5% 13.5% 34% 16% from E. Rogers, 1995

    10. Measurement and Feedback Knowledge Management A Framework for Spread Leadership -Topic is a key strategic initiative -Goals and incentives aligned -Executive sponsor assigned -Day-to-day managers identified Social System -Key messengers -Communities -Technical support -Transition issues Set-up -Target population -Adopter audiences -Successful sites -Key partners -Initial spread strategy Better Ideas -Develop the case -Describe the ideas Communication Strategies (awareness & technical)

    11. How Do We Spread? Many possible ways: • Natural diffusion • Breakthrough Series Collaborative model • Extension agents • Emergency mobilization • Wave sequence • Campaign model • Hybrid models

    12. Adopter Categories Innovators Early Majority Late Majority Early Adopters Laggards 34% 2.5% 13.5% 34% 16% from E. Rogers, 1995

    13. Breakthrough Series(~9-18 months time frame) Participants Select Topic Prework Develop Framework & Changes P P A D A D Summits, Guides, Publications, etc. S S Planning Group LS 1 LS 2 LS 3 Supports E-mail Visits Phone Assessments Senior Leader Reports

    14. PCC PCC PCC PCC PCC PCC PCC PCC PCC PCC PCC PCC PCC PCC PCC PCC PCC PCC PCC Wave Sequence Spread in South Africa 3o care 2o/ District Hospital/ CHC 2o/ District Hospital/ CHC 2o/ District Hospital/ CHC PCC PCC

    15. Examples of Major Spread Efforts in Health Care • Ascension Health - Affinity Groups • Kaiser Permanente - Nurse Knowledge Exchange • NHS UK - Modernization Plan • HRSA BPHC - Health Disparities Collaborative • Jönköping - Advanced Access • Iowa Health System – Medication Safety • Veterans Health Administration - Improved Access • DHHS Division of Transportation - Organ Donation • Tula & Tver Oblasts, Russian Federation – HT, PIH, HT • Peru - TB • End Stage Renal Disease Networks (CMS) • South Africa – Antiretroviral Therapy • 100,000 Lives Campaign, 5 Million Lives Campaign and SHN!

    16. Additional Examples • Cooperative Extension System (USDA) • BRAC (Bangladesh) • Grameenphone (Bangladesh) • Emergency “Plumpynut” response (Niger)

    17. How Do We Spread? Many possible ways: • Natural diffusion • Breakthrough Series Collaborative model • Extension agents • Emergency mobilization • Wave sequence • Hybrid models • Campaign model

    18. IHI’s Campaigns (100,000 Lives Campaign and 5 Million Lives Campaign)

    19. Campaign Origins Origins of IHI’s 100,000 Lives Campaign: • Frustration with persistent variability in the quality of care and the national rate of change; • Belief that our sense of urgency was shared by leaders and providers throughout the system; • Belief in the value of a shared, explicit set of aims.

    20. 100,000 Lives Campaign Objectives (December 2004 – June 2006) • Save 100,000 Lives • Enroll more than 2,000 hospitals in the initiative • Build a reusable national infrastructure for change • Raise the profile of the problem - and our proactive response

    21. Six Changes That Save Lives • Deployment of Rapid Response Teams…at the first sign of patient decline • Delivery of Reliable, Evidence-Based Care for Acute Myocardial Infarction…to prevent deaths from heart attack • Prevention of Adverse Drug Events (ADEs)…by implementing medication reconciliation • Prevention of Central Line Infections…by implementing a series of interdependent, scientifically grounded steps called the “Central Line Bundle” • Prevention of Surgical Site Infections…by reliably delivering the correct perioperative antibiotics at the proper time and taking several other associated actions • Prevention of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia…by implementing a series of interdependent, scientifically grounded steps called the “Ventilator Bundle”

    22. Measurement Strategy • Express changes in aggregate hospital (risk-adjusted) mortality, compared to 2004, in terms of “lives saved” • Direct submission of monthly raw mortality data (deaths, discharges) to IHI • National change in patient mortality risk from three sources applied to these data • “Optional” data at intervention-level and study of other intervention-level databases

    23. 100,000 Lives Campaign Objectives (December 2004 – June 2006) • Save 100,000 Lives • Enroll more than 2,000 hospitals in the initiative • Build a reusable national infrastructure for change • Raise the profile of the problem - and our proactive response

    24. Campaign Field Operations Structure Introduction, expert support/science, ongoing orientation, learning network development, national environment for change IHI and Campaign Leadership Ongoing communication Local recruitment and support of a smaller network through communication/collaboratives NODES (approx. 75) *Each Node Chairs 1 Network Mentor Hospitals Implementation (with roles for each stakeholder in hospital and use of existing spread strategies) FACILITIES (2000-plus) *30 to 60 Facilities per Network

    25. 100,000 Lives Campaign Objectives (December 2004 – June 2006) • Save 100,000 Lives • Enroll more than 2,000 hospitals in the initiative • Build a reusable national infrastructure for change • Raise the profile of the problem - and our proactive response

    26. The 100,000 Lives Campaign Scorecard • An estimated 122,000 lives saved by participating hospitals (through work on the Campaign but also through other improvements and work on complementary initiatives) • Over 3,100 Hospitals Enrolled • Over 78% of all discharges • Over 78% of all acute care beds • Over 85% of participating hospitals sending IHI mortality data • Participation in Campaign Interventions: • Rapid Response Teams: 60% • AMI Care Reliability: 77% • Medication Reconciliation: 73% • Surgical Site Infection Bundles: 72% • Ventilator Bundles: 67% • Central Venous Line Bundles: 65% • All six: 42%

    27. Additional Campaign Status • Over 55 field offices (“nodes”) • Vibrant national partner support • Thousands on national calls • Unprecedented web activity • New tool development • Unprecedented media coverage (Newsweek, US News and World Report, Wall Street Journal, New York Times, JAMA) • Related campaigns forming nationally and globally (Canada, Australia, Sweden, Denmark) • Changes in standard of care in participating facilities (e.g. over 25 hospitals going a year without a VAP)

    28. Campaign Objectives (Summer and Fall 2006) • Save 100,000 Lives • Enroll more than 2,000 hospitals in the initiative • Build a reusable national infrastructure for change • Raise the profile of the problem - and our proactive response • Complete implementation of all six Campaign interventions in participating hospitals by January 2007.

    29. Possible Ways Forward • Expanded 100,000 Lives Campaign – take advantage of installed audience and welcome others to use the “chassis” • Possible focus on reducing harm, waste, disparities • Deeper connection to patients and families, outpatient settings, Boards, and executives • Engagement with other nations

    30. We Aim to Achieve Care That Is… • Safe • Effective • Patient-centered • Timely • Efficient • Equitable

    31. IHI’s “No Needless” List No needless deaths No needless pain No helplessness No unwanted waiting No waste …for anyone

    32. The Next Campaign • We know that for every unnecessary death there is much more error, injury and pain. • We know that the nation has a great deal of progress yet to make in reducing adverse drug events, infection, and surgical complications. • We are serious about completely transforming the US health care system. • We know that there is great will and optimism among leaders and frontline providers of care.

    33. The Next Campaign WE’RE GOING AFTER HARM…

    34. Our Definition of Medical Harm Unintended physical injury resulting from or contributed to by medical care (including the absence of indicated medical treatment), that requires additional monitoring, treatment or hospitalization, or that results in death. Such injury is considered harm whether or not it is considered preventable, whether or not it resulted from a medical error, and whether or not it occurred within a hospital.

    35. The 5 Million Lives Campaign • Campaign Objectives: • Avoid five million incidents of harm over the next 24 months; • Enroll more than 4,000 hospitals and their communities in this work; • Strengthen the Campaign’s national infrastructure for change and transform it into a national asset; • Raise the profile of the problem - and hospitals’ proactive response - with a larger, public audience.

    36. The Platform The six interventions from the 100,000 Lives Campaign: • Deploy Rapid Response Teams…at the first sign of patient decline • Deliver Reliable, Evidence-Based Care for Acute Myocardial Infarction…to prevent deaths from heart attack • Prevent Adverse Drug Events (ADEs)…by implementing medication reconciliation • Prevent Central Line Infections…by implementing a series of interdependent, scientifically grounded steps • Prevent Surgical Site Infections…by reliably delivering the correct perioperative antibiotics at the proper time • Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia…by implementing a series of interdependent, scientifically grounded steps

    37. The Platform New interventions targeted at harm: • Prevent Pressure Ulcers... by reliably using science-based guidelines for their prevention • Reduce Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Infection…by reliably implementing scientifically proven infection control practices • Prevent Harm from High-Alert Medications... starting with a focus on anticoagulants, sedatives, narcotics, and insulin • Reduce Surgical Complications... by reliably implementing all of the changes in care recommended by the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) • Deliver Reliable, Evidence-Based Care for Congestive Heart Failure…to reduce readmissions. • Get Boards on Board….Defining and spreading the best-known leveraged processes for hospital Boards of Directors, so that they can become far more effective in accelerating organizational progress toward safe care

    38. The Platform …plus numerous other interventions that hospitals must introduce in order to contribute to meeting our aim.

    39. The 5 Million Lives Campaign • Campaign Objectives: • Avoid five million incidents of harm over the next 24 months; • Enroll more than 4,000 hospitals and their communities in this work; • Strengthen the Campaign’s national infrastructure for change and transform it into a national asset; • Raise the profile of the problem - and hospitals’ proactive response - with a larger, public audience.

    40. The 5 Million Lives Campaign • Campaign Objectives: • Avoid five million incidents of harm over the next 24 months; • Enroll more than 4,000 hospitals and their communities in this work; • Strengthen the Campaign’s national infrastructure for change and transform it into a national asset; • Raise the profile of the problem - and hospitals’ proactive response - with a larger, public audience.

    41. More Details • Mechanics: Opt-out enrollment; no cost for participants; mortality data/profile data submission; multiple approaches to morbidity measurement (including representative national panel). • New audiences: Boards; patients and families; outpatient settings. • Operational enhancements: Improved feedback system; improved field operation (including rural support); study of intervention-level business implications. • Support: Nodes, national partner group, key donors (America’s Blue Cross and Blue Shield health plans, Cardinal Health Foundation, others)

    42. Some Early Returns • Outstanding national call attendance • Unprecedented downloads of intervention materials • Very strong interest in MRSA, Pressure Ulcer and “Boards on Board” interventions • Powerful local activity through field offices • Increased action in rural affinity group • Some academic dialogue

    43. The Big Question Will we help drive a massive national reduction in harm? That’s the exciting work ahead…moving from enrollment and orientation to execution, from initial improvement to significant spread and sustainability…

    44. The Campaign Spread Approach

    45. Campaign Field Operations Structure Introduction, expert support/science, ongoing orientation, learning network development, national environment for change IHI and Campaign Leadership Ongoing communication Local recruitment and support of a smaller network through communication/collaboratives NODES (approx. 75) *Each Node Chairs 1 Network Mentor Hospitals Implementation (with roles for each stakeholder in hospital and use of existing spread strategies) FACILITIES (2000-plus) *30 to 60 Facilities per Network

    46. Campaign Field Operations Structure Introduction, expert support/science, ongoing orientation, learning network development, national environment for change IHI and Campaign Leadership Ongoing communication Local recruitment and support of a smaller network through communication/collaboratives NODES (approx. 75) *Each Node Chairs 1 Network Mentor Hospitals Implementation (with roles for each stakeholder in hospital and use of existing spread strategies) FACILITIES (2000-plus) *30 to 60 Facilities per Network

    47. Leadership in the Campaign • IHI and National Partners: • Set agenda and “drumbeat” • Establish conducive regulatory environment • Align with one another on quality initiatives • Nodes: • Local leadership • Support for peer organizations • Hospitals: • Create will (and utilize will, ideas and execution framework) • Create accountability systems • Remove resource barriers – real or perceived