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4 Mar. Opener: Who came up with the idea of evolution?. Agenda Review of Natural Selection Evolution Misconceptions Big Picture on Evolution Homework Read the intro to Chapter 8 on pg 287. Ways of Knowing.

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4 mar
4Mar
  • Opener: Who came up with the idea of evolution?
  • Agenda
    • Review of Natural Selection
    • Evolution Misconceptions
    • Big Picture on Evolution
  • Homework
    • Read the intro to Chapter 8 on pg 287
ways of knowing
Ways of Knowing

Science, in terms of the ways of knowing discussed by Kerlinger (1973), might be considered a special case of the combination of experience and reason. While inspiration or intuition often plays an important role in scientific discovery, it must be subjected to experience that can be publicly verified and reason before it is accepted.

  • Experience
  • Intuition
  • Authority
  • Philosophy
  • Science
natural selection
Natural selection
  • There is heritable variation within populations
  • More offspring are born than can survive
  • The result is a competition for limited resources
  • Some organisms survive & reproduce based on adaptation

Charles Darwin

evolution misconceptions
Evolution Misconceptions
  • http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/misconceps/IHowitworks.shtml
  • http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/variation/misconceptions/
5 mar
5 Mar
  • Opener:

What types of evidence do you think Darwin used to support his idea of natural selection?

  • Agenda
    • Big Picture on evolution
    • History of Evolutionary Thought
  • Homework
    • 8.1 & 8.13 + GQs
7 mar
7 Mar
  • Agenda:
    • “The evolution of evolutionary thought” Reading Assignment
8 9 mar
8-9 Mar
  • Opener:

What types of evidence do you think Darwin used to support his idea of natural selection?

  • Agenda
    • Evidence for Evolution by Natural Selection Prezi
    • Great Transformations
  • Homework
    • Read chapter 8.1, 8.2, & 8.10
slide8

Evidence for Evolution Prezi:

  • http://prezi.com/-22ga7qqd6hr/copy-of-ap-bio-evolution-3-evidence-of-evolution/
11 mar
11 Mar
  • Opener: The diagram below shows a comparison of nitrogen base sequences in the DNA of some organisms to those of a human.  According to this diagram, humans may be most closely related to _________
  • Agenda
    • Finish Evidence notes
  • Homework
    • none
12 mar
12 Mar
  • Opener: The diagram below shows a comparison of nitrogen base sequences in the DNA of some organisms to those of a human.  According to this diagram, humans may be most closely related to _________
  • Agenda
    • Start Review
  • Homework
    • Formative quiz tomorrow
13 mar
13 Mar
  • Agenda
    • Unit 8 Formative Quiz
  • Homework
    • Unit 8 readings
14 mar
14 Mar
  • Opener:
    • Page 287 in our book talks a lot about “chance and selection” in regard to evolution. How does “chance and selection” summarize evolution?
  • Agenda
    • Collect Unit 8 Reading/ Sub Report
    • Lizard drawing
    • Co-evolution/ Symbiosis and Mimicry
  • Homework
    • none
co evolution and symbiosis
Co-evolution and Symbiosis
  • Coevolution
    • The evolutionary change of one species triggered by the change of another species with which it closely interacts
  • Symbiosis
    • Two different organisms living together
    • Types of Symbiosis:
      • Mutualism (+/+)
      • Commensalism (+/o)
      • Parasitism (+/-)
mutualism
Mutualism
  • Benefits both organisms (+/+)
  • Example: Acacia ants and Acacia trees
commensalism
Commensalism
  • Benefits one organism, no effect on the other (+/0)
  • Example: Whales and barnacles
parasitism
Parasitism
  • Beneficial to one organism, harmful to another (+/-)
  • Example: leeches!
mimicry
Mimicry
  • Mimicry is the similarity of one species to another. This similarity can be in appearance, behavior, sound, scent or location and can protect one or both species.
  • Result of convergent evolution
more batesian mimicry
More Batesian mimicry

The toxic sea slug Phillidiella pustulosa (left)

is mimicked by a harmless flatworm Pseudoceros imitatus

more batesian mimicry1
More Batesian mimicry

The harmless Allobates zaparo (top)

mimics the poisonous

Epipedobates biliguis (middle)

and the even more toxic species

E. parvalus whenever these species

share their habitats

more batesian mimicry2
More Batesian mimicry

The filefish Canthigaster valentini (left) mimics the unpalatable puffer Paraluterus prionurus

more batesian mimicry3
More Batesian mimicry

The Harlequin Snake eel (Myrichthys colubrinus) mimics the Banded sea snake (Laticauda colubrina) an extremely toxic species with conspicuous black and white warning colouration

more batesian mimicry4
More Batesian mimicry

The mimic octopus (Thaumoctopus mimicus)has the ability to mimic other aquatic creatures in order to avoid predation

m llerian mimicry
Müllerian mimicry

Many stinging wasps, like (from left to right) Vespula vulgaris, Vespula germanica and Vespula rufa share the same or similar black and yellow color pattern.

m llerian mimicry1
Müllerian mimicry

Subspecies of Heliconius erato

(left-hand column) and of

H. melpomene on the right.

Both species are toxic and form

a local mimicry ring from a different

area of Ecuador or northern Peru

peckhamian mimicry
Peckhamian mimicry

This angler fish (Antenarius sp.) displays a lure resembling a small fish

slide27

Angler fish:

  • http://www.arkive.org/anglerfish/lophius-piscatorius/video-08.html
peckhamian mimicry1
Peckhamian mimicry

In its mouth, the Alligator snapping turtle (Macroclemys temminckii)

possesses a wormlike projection that is moved to attract prey into the turtle’s mouth

more peckhamian mimicry
More Peckhamian mimicry

Some spiders like the Synemosyninae and the genus Myrmarachne mimic ants that they hunt

more peckhamian mimicry1
More Peckhamian mimicry

Lightning bugs (Lampiridae) have specific flash sequences to find eachother. Females of the genus Photurus can imitate the flash sequence of Photunis females in order to attract male wich they will devour .

peckhamian mimicry in carnivorous plants
Peckhamian mimicry in carnivorous plants

The fly orchid (Ophrys insectifera) and the Venus Flytrap, (Dionaea muscipula) attract insects that they digest

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ktIGVtKdgwo

wasmannian mimicry
Wasmannian mimicry

Reichenbachia spatulifer

Araeoschizus sp.

Some beetles mimic ants in order to be provided with food, shelter and protection

camouflage
Camouflage

The moth Datana sp. (Notodontidae)mimics the rain forest floor

camouflage1
Camouflage

The frog Paradoxophyla palmata mimics the mud and tree trunks in its environment.

camouflage2
Camouflage

The pygmy seahorse Hippocampus bargibanti mimics gorgonian corals of the genus Muricella

camouflage3
Camouflage

The great bittern Botaurus stellarisis pretty well camouflaged in its natural habitat

slide37

Octopus camouflage:

  • http://www.ted.com/talks/david_gallo_shows_underwater_astonishments.html
15 mar
15 Mar
  • Movie: “Evolutionary Arms Race”
18 mar
18 Mar
  • Opener:

Page 287 in our book talks a lot about “chance and selection” in regard to evolution. How does “chance and selection” summarize evolution?

  • Agenda
    • Review for Unit 8 Exam
  • Homework
    • Unit 8 Exam Tomorrow
19 mar
19 Mar
  • Test day: Unit 8 Exam
20 mar
20 Mar
  • Review for Q3 Exam
24 mar
24 Mar
  • Quarter 3 exam
4 apr
4 Apr
  • Opener
  • Agenda
    • Welcome Back! New Seats
    • Review natural selection
    • Artificial Selection
  • Homework
    • Read p. 287 and 8.2 (again)
    • BRING BOOK TOMORROW
examples of natural selection
Examples of Natural Selection
  • In a group of Zebras, some are fast, some are slow
  • Lions catch the slowest zebras first
  • Slow zebras are often killed before they can reproduce
  • Therefore, the genes for slowness don’t get passed on, but the genes for fastness do
  • Over time, the population of zebras becomes faster
  • How else could a population of Zebras change to avoid being eaten?
  • How do you think the population of lions changes?
5 apr
5 Apr
  • Opener:

Page 287 in our book talks a lot about “chance and selection” in regard to evolution. How does “chance and selection” summarize evolution?

  • Agenda
    • Chapter 8 participation assignment
    • Co-evolution/mimicry
  • Homework
    • None
6 apr
6 Apr
  • Agenda
    • Mimicry
    • Start “Evolutionary Arms Race”
7 apr
7 Apr
  • Agenda
    • Finish “Evolutionary Arms Race”
    • Review for Quiz
evidence supporting evolution
Evidence supporting evolution
  • Fossil record
      • shows change over time
  • Anatomical record
    • comparing body structures
      • homology & vestigial structures
      • embryology & development
  • Molecular record
    • comparing protein & DNA sequences
    • Artificial selection
    • Biogeography
1 fossil record
1. Fossil record
  • Layers of rock contain fossils
    • new layers cover older ones
      • creates a record over time
    • fossils show a series of organisms have lived on Earth
      • over a long period of time
fossils tell a story
Fossils tell a story…

the Earth is old

Life is old

Life on Earth has changed

evolution of birds
Evolution of birds

Today’s organisms descended from ancestral species

Fossil of Archaeopteryx

  • lived about 150 mya
  • links reptiles & birds
slide55

?

?

?

Complete seriesof transitionalfossils

?

We found the fossil — no joke!

Land Mammal

Where are theintermediate fossils?

Someone’s idea of a joke!

Ocean Mammal

But the joke’s on them!!

evolution from sea to land
Evolution from sea to land
  • 2006 fossil discovery of early tetrapod
    • 4 limbs
  • Missing link from sea to land animals
2 anatomical record
2. Anatomical record

Animals with different structures on the surface

But when you look under the skin…

It tells an evolutionary story of common ancestors

compare the bones
Compare the bones
  • The same bones under the skin
    • limbs that perform different functions are built from the same bones

How could thesevery different animalshave the same bones?

homologous structures
Homologous structures
  • Structures that come from the same origin
      • homo- = same
      • -logous = information
  • Forelimbs of human, cats, whales, & bats
    • same structure
      • on the inside
    • same development in embryo
    • different functions
      • on the outside
    • evidence of common ancestor
but don t be fooled by these
But don’t be fooled by these…
  • Analogous structures
    • look similar
      • on the outside
    • same function
    • different structure & development
      • on the inside
    • different origin
    • no evolutionary relationship

Solving a similar problem with a similar solution

analogous structures
Analogous structures
  • Dolphins: aquatic mammal
  • Fish: aquatic vertebrate
    • both adapted to life in the sea
    • not closely related
convergent evolution

Flight evolved 3 separate times—

evolving similar solutions to similar “problems”

Convergent evolution
  • 3 groups with wings
    • Does this mean they have a recent common ancestor?

No!

convergent evolution1
Convergent Evolution

Octopus Eye

(no blind spot)

Human Eye

(blind spot)

convergent evolution led to mimicry
Convergent evolution led to mimicry
  • Why do these pairs look so similar?

Monarch male

Viceroy male

Which is the moth vs. the bee?

Which is the fly vs. the bee?

fly

bee

moth

bee

vestigial organs body part that no longer serves a function
Vestigial organs- body part that no longer serves a function
  • Hind leg bones on whale fossils

Why would whales have pelvis & leg bones if they were always sea creatures?

comparative embryology
Comparative embryology
  • Development of embryo tells an evolutionary story
    • similar structures during development

all vertebrate embryos have a “gill pouch” at one stage of development

3 molecular record

Dog

Human

Macaque

Bird

Frog

Lamprey

8

32

45

125

67

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

3. Molecular record
  • Comparing DNA & protein structure
    • everyone uses the same genetic code!
      • DNA
  • compare common genes
  • compare common proteins

number of amino acids different from human hemoglobin

building family trees
Building “family” trees

Closely related species are branches on the tree — coming from a common ancestor

4 artificial selection
4. Artificial selection
  • How do we know natural selection can change a population?
    • we can recreate a similar process
    • “evolution by human selection”

“descendants” of wild mustard

selective breeding
Selective Breeding

Humans create the change over time

“descendants” of the wolf

artificial selection
Artificial Selection

…and the examples keep coming!

artificial selection gone bad
Artificial Selection gone bad!
  • Unexpected consequences of artificial selection

Pesticide resistance

Antibiotic resistance

insecticide resistance
Insecticide resistance
  • Spray the field, but…
    • insecticide didn’t kill all individuals
      • variation
    • resistant survivors reproduce
    • resistance is inherited
    • insecticide becomes less & less effective
5 biogeography
5. Biogeography
  • Organisms found in a particular area tend to be more closely related to each other than they are to organisms found in other areas.