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Thinking about Words

Thinking about Words. The Vocabulary Pyramid. Word. Problem Solving. (Lubliner & Scott, 2008). Word Consciousness. Wide Reading & Read Alouds. Rich Oral Language . Consider…. Words are the building blocks of communication…. Learning New Words.

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Thinking about Words

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  1. Thinking about Words

  2. The Vocabulary Pyramid Word Problem Solving (Lubliner & Scott, 2008) Word Consciousness Wide Reading & Read Alouds Rich Oral Language

  3. Consider… • Words are the building blocks of communication…

  4. Learning New Words • to understand them when we are listening and reading (receptive vocabulary) and • to be able to use them when we are talking and writing (productive vocabulary).

  5. Such as… • Words tied to specific content: • molecular, settlers, • ecosystems, hypotenuse • or • Words that add richness and depth to writing: • despicable, vacillate, • translucent, grim

  6. Dolch Word List • The Dolch Word List is a list of frequently used words compiled by Edward William Dolch, PhD. The list was originally published in his book Problems in Reading in 1948.

  7. Dolch Word List a as again about any all away ate after better am be over always both an black but around bring and brown cold ask carry are by cut because clean at came fast been could big did first before done blue eat five best don’t call fall fly buy draw can find four does drink come for give far eight look on please round there make one or sleep these me put our small think out saw pull take those play said read tell together pretty she start thank use ran sit say that very red some sing they want ride stop six this warm run three soon too wash see today ten try went so two upon under what the was us walk when to will who well where up work why were which we yes wish white would you yellow your with write do get goes found every down going from full hurt funny have got gave know go her green grow light good him had hold myself he his has how never help if hot just own here into its keep pick I laugh long kind right in let made much seven is live many must shall it may new now show jump my not off their like no of once them little old open only then

  8. What are these?

  9. What are these? Trebuchet

  10. What are these? Trebuchet Carabiners

  11. What are these? Trebuchet Philtrum Carabiners

  12. What are these? Lateral Malleolus Trebuchet Philtrum Carabiners

  13. acronyms pseudo-synonyms, or false synonyms single-concept principle hyponyms antonyms neologisms phraseologism UNDERSTANDING WORDS quasi-synonyms, or near-synonyms hypernyms Cross- references collocation monosemy tautonyms synonyms polysemy abbreviations

  14. Hyponym • a word or phrase whose semantic range is included within that of another word. For example, • scarlet, • vermilion, • carmine, and • crimson • are all hyponyms of red, which is, in turn, a hyponym of colour.

  15. Antonym • are words that lie in an inherently incompatible binary relationship as in the opposite pairs • male : female, • long : short, • up : down, and • precede : follow.

  16. Acronym • abbreviations that are formed using the initial components in a phrase or name. For example, • M.P. • S.Q.L. • U.F.O. • S.C.U.B.A. • L.A.S.E.R.

  17. Pseudo-Synonym • a term incorrectly used for a given concept as a result of misunderstanding correct usage, confusion between a generic and a specific, etc. For example: • Y2K virus instead of Y2K bug.

  18. Single-Concept Principle • a term should deal with one concept only, this means that there is no ambiguity.

  19. Neologism • is a word that, although devised relatively recently in a specific time period, has been accepted into a mainstream language. The term "neologism" was coined in 1803. • prequel (1958) • Internet (1974) • “jumping the shark” (late 1970s) • "d'oh"(1989–) • blog (late 1990s) • chav (early 2000s)

  20. Quasi-Synonym • a term that designates the same concept as another, but which is not interchangeable with the other term in all contexts as its use is limited to certain communication situations.

  21. Cross-Reference • is an instance within a document which refers to related or synonymous information elsewhere, usually within the same work.

  22. Monosemy • having a single meaning (absence of ambiguity) usually of individual words or phrases. For example, • Clarity

  23. Abbreviation • a shortened form of a word or phrase. For example, • Interpol for International police • chute for parachute • phone for telephone • should be distinguished from portmanteau words (a word formed by blending sounds from two or more distinct words and combining their meanings e.g. Brunch, Wikipedia, Billary)

  24. Synonym • different words with identical or at least similar meanings. • baby and infant (noun) • student and pupil (noun) • sick and ill (adjective) • quickly and speedily (adverb) • freedom and liberty (noun)

  25. Tautonym • a taxonomic designation, in which the genus and species names are the same, commonly used in zoology but no longer in botany. For example, • Gazella gazella • Gorilla gorilla • Rattus rattus • Vulpes vulpes

  26. Polysemy • is a word or phrase with multiple, related meanings. • The house is at the foot of the mountains • One of his shoes felt too tight for his foot • 'Foot' here refers to the bottom part of the mountains in the first sentence and the bottom part of the leg in the second.

  27. Collocation • a sequence of words or terms which co-occur more often than would be expected by chance. For example, • 'bank' are: central, river, account, manager, merchant, money, deposits, lending, society. • High collocates with probability, but not with chance: a high probability but a good chance

  28. Hypernym • a word, usually somewhat vague and broad in meaning, that other more specific words fall under or are fairly encompassed by. For example, • vehicle denotes all the things that are separately denoted by the words train, chariot, dogsled, airplane, and automobile

  29. Phraseologism • a term together with a word or words with which the term commonly occurs in specialized discourse. For example, • “kicking the bucket” • “as white as a sheet”

  30. Searching the Web

  31. acronyms pseudo-synonyms, or false synonyms single-concept principle hyponyms antonyms neologisms phraseologism PROBLEMS WITH USING A SEARCH ENGINE AS THE SOLE SOURCE OF INFORMATION quasi-synonyms, or near-synonyms hypernyms Cross- references collocation monosemy tautonyms synonyms polysemy abbreviations

  32. Finding Research online • Effective Searching • Let us consider searching for information relating to 'Project-Based Learning' • The Hyphen • The first thing to note is the hyphen between the words 'Project' and 'Based', will every web-page relating to this subject have the hyphen in it, or will some just leave it out. If you just leave it out the search engines will find the phrase with or without the hyphen.

  33. Finding Research online • So the first search to try is • "Project Based Learning" • if this returns 10,000 links then try • "Project Based Learning" "PhD Thesis" • "Project Based Learning" "Masters Thesis“ • “Project Based Learning” “Masters Thesis” Declaration • this may return PhD or Masters thesis on the subject you require information on.

  34. Finding Research online • To find other 'good' pages relating to your subject matter, try • "Project Based Learning Link*" • for "PBL Links" or "PBL Link Page" • "Project Based Learning Portal*" • for "PBL Portal" or "PBL Portal Page" • "Project Based Learning Webring*" • for "PBL Webring" or "PBL Webrings" • "Project Based Learning FAQ*" • for "PBL FAQ"or "PBL FAQs" or "PBL FAQL"or "PBL FAQLs"

  35. Finding Research online • If you are looking for papers relating to "Project Based Learning", try • "Project Based Learning" Bibliography • "Project Based Learning" Literature Review • "Project Based Learning" Literature Survey • "Project Based Learning" Overview • "Project Based Learning" “A Roadmap” • Unlike the previous section where we were looking for 'good' pages and put the entire phrase in double quotes, in this section we are only putting the subject matter we are investigating in quotes and the rest of the terms are free text, in this way we can find pages which may not be titled, for example, "Project Based Learning Bibliography", but may be a bibliography which contain references to Project Based Learning.

  36. Finding Research online • If you are looking for a more specific topic, for example, "The Impact of the Web on Project Based Learning", try • "Impact of the Web on Project Based Learning" (unlikely) • "Project Based Learning" overview web • "Project Based Learning" survey web • "Project Based Learning" review web • "Project Based Learning" assessment web

  37. Finding Research online • Also consider web-sites which will be using the acronym for "Project Based Learning" • so try • "PBL" • "P.B.L." • Consider the acronym for "Virtual Learning Environments", it could be "VLE"or "VLEs"or "V.L.E."or "V.L.E.s"or "V.L.Es", so try • "VLE*" • "V.L.E*"

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