reproduction in flowering plants n.
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REPRODUCTION IN FLOWERING PLANTS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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REPRODUCTION IN FLOWERING PLANTS. A. FLOWER ARCHITECTURE. 1. SEPALS- COLLECTIVELY KNOWN AS THE CALYX . PROTECTS THE EMERGING FLOWER. 2. PETALS-COLLECTIVELY KNOWN AS THE COROLLA . SERVES TO ATTRACT INSECTS SO POLLINATION MAY OCCUR. 3. STAMEN-MALE PORTION OF THE FLOWER

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a flower architecture
A. FLOWER ARCHITECTURE
  • 1. SEPALS- COLLECTIVELY KNOWN AS THE CALYX. PROTECTS THE EMERGING FLOWER.
  • 2. PETALS-COLLECTIVELY KNOWN AS THE COROLLA. SERVES TO ATTRACT INSECTS SO POLLINATION MAY OCCUR.
slide3
3. STAMEN-MALE PORTION OF THE FLOWER
    • A. ANTHER -LOCATION OF POLLEN FORMATION
    • B. FILAMENT IS THE STALK THAT ELEVATES THE ANTHER.
slide4
4. PISTIL- FEMALE PORTION OF THE FLOWER MADE UP OF THREE REGIONS.
    • A. STIGMA- SITE OF POLLEN CONTACT
    • B. STYLE
    • C. OVARY-CONTAINS THE HAPLOID EGG CELLS
slide5
5. TERMS WHICH PERTAIN TO FLOWER STRUCTURE
    • A. ESSENTIAL- PARTS THAT CARRY OUT SEXUAL FUNCTION
    • B. NONESSENTIAL-PARTS THAT PROTECT AND ADORN
    • C. PERFECT-FLOWER WITH ALL ESSENTIAL PARTS
slide6
D. COMPLETE-FLOWER WITH ALL PARTS
  • E. IMPERFECT-FLOWER WITH ONLY ONE SEX
  • F. INCOMPLETE-FLOWER THAT LACKS ONE OR MORE PARTS
b pollination vs fertilization
B. POLLINATION VS FERTILIZATION
  • 1. SELF-POLLINATION- POLLEN FALLS FROM ANTHER TO STIGMA OF SAME PLANT
  • 2. ARTIFICIAL POLLINATION- POLLINATION PROCESS IS CONTROLLED BY HUMANS
slide8
3. CROSS POLLINATION- POLLEN IS TRANSFERRED FROM ANTHER TO STIGMA OF DIFFERENT PLANT.
  • 4. FERTILIZATION OCCUR AFTER POLLINATION.
slide9
5. STRUCTURES AND PROCESSES INVOLVED IN FERTILIZATION
    • A. POLLEN TUBE- GROWS DOWN THROUGH THE STIGMA TO THE OVARY AND THE SPERM NUCLEI
    • B. TUBE NUCLEUS-ALLOWS FORMATION OF THE POLLEN TUBE
slide10
C. GENERATIVE NUCLEUS-FORMS TWO SPERM NUCLEI
  • D. DOUBLE FERTILIZATION (2 SPERM NUCLEI ARE INVOLVED. )
    • POLAR NUCLEI PLUS SPERM WILL PRODUCE THE 3n ENDOSPERM
    • EGG NUCLEUS PLUS THE SPERM NUCLEUS WILL PRODUCE THE ZYGOTE (2n)
slide11
6. IN THE ANGIOSPERMS THE SPOROPHYTE GENERATION IS DOMINANT. THE GAMETOPHYTES EXIST ONLY AS SPERM AND EGG NUCLEI.
slide13
1. THE SEEDS DEVELOP FROM FERTILIZED OVULES.
  • 2. SEED STRUCTURES FOR MONOCOTS AND DICOTS DIFFER.
slide14
3. DICOT SEED STRUCTURES
    • A. TESTA- SEED COAT
    • B. HILUM-CONCAVE EDGE WHERE SEED WAS ATTACHED TO THE OVARY WALL
    • C. MICOPYLE-OPENING AT THE OVARY’S BOTTOM THROUGH WHICH POLLEN TUBES GROW
slide15
D. COTYLEDONS- (SEED LEAVES) SOURCE OF STORED FOOD ALONG WITH THE ENDOSPERM
  • E. EMBRYO
    • 1. RADICLE- EMBRYO ROOT
    • 2. HYPOCOTYL - EMBRYO ABOVE THE RADICLE BUT BELOW THE COTYLEDONS
    • 3. EPICOTYL-EMBRYO ABOVE THE COTYLEDON ATTACHMENT
slide17
4. MONOCOT SEED STRUCTURES
    • A. TESTA - SEED COAT
    • B. ENDOSPERM - FOOD STORAGE (STARCH)
slide18
C. EMBRYO
    • 1. RADICLE - EMBRYONIC ROOT
    • 2. HYPOCOTYL- ABOVE RADICLE, BELOW COTYLEDONS
    • 3. EPICOTYL- ABOVE THE COTYLEDON
    • 4. INCLUDES THE EPICOTYL PLUS ANY EARLY LEAVES
    • 5. COLEOPTILE - SHEATH THAT PROTECTS THE EMBRYONIC SHOOT
slide19
5. A FRUIT IS AN ENLARGED OVARY OF A FLOWERING PLANT THAT CONTAINS SEEDS.
  • 6. PARTHENOCARPY IS THE ABILITY OF PLANTS TO DEVELOP FRUITS WITHOUT FERTILIZATION.
d seed dispersal
D. SEED DISPERSAL
  • 1. ANIMALS - COCKLEBURRS
  • 2. WIND - DANDELIONS
  • 3. WATER - COCONUTS
  • 4. SELF-EXPLOSIVE OR PROPELLING ACTION SUCH AS IN A TYPE OF EVERGREEN SHRUB OR DWARF MISTLETOE.
e seed germination
E. SEED GERMINATION
  • 1. MANY SEEDS REQUIRE A PERIOD OF DORMANCY BEFORE GERMINATION
  • 2. FACTORS NEEDED FOR GERMINATION
    • A. WATER B. OXYGEN
    • C. TEMPERATURE D. LIGHT (LATER)