digestive systems in mammals n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Digestive Systems in Mammals PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Digestive Systems in Mammals

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 24

Digestive Systems in Mammals - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Digestive Systems in Mammals. VCE Biology Unit 1. Food Requirements. Cows, dogs and humans have different food requirements Cows (herbivores) stand around all day eating grass Dogs (carnivores) gulp down food in minutes Their teeth are different Their intestines are different.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Digestive Systems in Mammals' - talasi

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
food requirements
Food Requirements
  • Cows, dogs and humans have different food requirements
    • Cows (herbivores) stand around all day eating grass
    • Dogs (carnivores) gulp down food in minutes
    • Their teeth are different
    • Their intestines are different
humans are omnivores
Humans are Omnivores
  • Food physically broken by teeth
  • Digestion takes 12 to 72 hours
  • Mucus secreted to protect lining of gut and lubricate food (we can eat glass)
  • Food moves through digestive tract and a series of digestive enzymes released to breakdown complex molecules for absorption.
  • Useful substances absorbed; unwanted and undigested substances eliminated as faeces (fæces).
food reception and transport
Food Reception and Transport
  • Mouth and mouth cavity
  • Taste
  • Teeth
  • Saliva (pH 7.0 – 7.5)
  • Amylase
  • Ethanol absorbed through lining of mouth therefore absorbed before food is digested
food reception and transport1
Food Reception and Transport
  • Swallowing into oesophagus (œsophagus)
  • Use back of tongue to push food against back of pharynx (a co-ordinated reflex which cannot be controlled)
  • Swallowing causes the opening of both upper and lower oesophagus sphincter (ring of muscle)
  • Soft palate and epiglottis move to prevent bolus entering airway.
digestion and absorption
Digestion and Absorption


  • Food storage organ
  • Changed into chyme (soft semi-fluid mixture)
  • HCl, pepsinogen and gastric lipase released
  • Acid breaks pepsinogen into pepsin
  • pH prevents action by amylase
  • Gastric lipase digests fats into fatty acids and glycerol
  • Other glands produce mucus to protect stomach
  • Very little absorption occurs (except alcohol and certain drugs [aspirin and some penicillins])
digestion and absorption2
Digestion and Absorption

Small Intestine (6 m)

  • Important exchange organ
  • Long, large surface area well suited for absorption
  • Inner lining has million of tiny folds called villi (singular villus)
  • Thin and well supplied with blood and lymphatic vessels
  • Chyme moves through intestine by peristalsis.
  • First part called duodenum (25 cm) (pH 6.0 – 7.0)
    • Receives pancreatic enzymes and bile from liver to emulsify fats and neutralises acid from stomach
digestion and absorption3
Digestion and Absorption

Small Intestine (jejunum [1.4 m] and ileum [3.5] [pH 7.0 – 8.0])

  • Enzymes secreted by lining of intestine
  • Complete digestion of carbohydrates into simple sugars, proteins into amino acids and fats into fatty acids and glycerol.
  • Some nutrients pass through small intestinal wall along a concentration gradient
  • Most nutrients actively transported
  • Most water absorbed (90 – 95 %)
  • Blood leaving the intestine pass through liver first
water absorption and egestion
Water Absorption and Egestion

Large Intestine (Colon)

  • Salts actively absorbed
  • Water absorbed passively
  • No digestive enzymes released
  • Bacteria in colon digest fibre (cellulose) for their own use and produce fatty acids for absorption (insignificant for humans but important for herbivores)
  • Intestinal microorganisms produce vitamins K and B12 which are absorbed by colon.
water absorption and egestion1
Water Absorption and Egestion

Large Intestine (Colon and Rectum)

  • Involved in storage of faeces
  • Faeces is made up of 75% water and 25% solid matter (largely dead bacteria and indigestible fibre)
  • Bacteria in colon main source of farts
herbivores utilise cellulose
Herbivores Utilise Cellulose
  • Cellulose too large to be absorbed
  • Cellulose broken down by cellulase (produced by fungi, protozoans and bacteria)
  • These organisms live in gut of herbivores (including termites and cockroaches)
  • Symbiotic partnership (mutualism)
  • Environment in gut warm and moist but low in oxygen, therefore breakdown of cellulose occurs anaerobically by fermentation.
hindgut fermenters
Hindgut Fermenters
  • Fermentation occurs in caecum (enlarged pouch at junction of small and large intestines)
  • Position of fermentation chamber limits absorption of nutrients
  • Examples: Horses, koalas, wombats, possums and rabbits
    • Possums and rabbits produce two kinds of faeces: one directly from caecum at night which is re-ingested to go through intestine again.
foregut fermenters
Foregut Fermenters
  • Fermentation chamber located before stomach
  • Chamber called a rumen in ruminants (cattle, sheep, kangaroos and wallabies)
  • Food regurgitated (cud) into mouth for further physical breakdown (rumination)
  • Better absorption of nutrients from breakdown (before small intestine
  • Negative aspect: can take hours to days for breakdown of cellulose