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Fidel Castro. By: Addison Craig & Pragya Chaudhari. Fidel Castro Ruz was born on August 13, 1926 in Biràn Cuba to Angel Castro y Argiz and Lina Ruz Gonzáles. In 1945 Castro enrolled at the University of Havana law school, where he immediately plunged into campus and national politics.

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Fidel Castro


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    1. Fidel Castro By: Addison Craig & PragyaChaudhari

    2. Fidel Castro Ruz was born on August 13, 1926 in Biràn Cuba to Angel Castro y Argiz and Lina Ruz Gonzáles. • In 1945 Castro enrolled at the University of Havana law school, where he immediately plunged into campus and national politics. • Student political activism on campus, often violent and marked by extremist ideologies, had always been an influential factor in Cuban national politics. Fidel Castro Early Life

    3. Early in 1952, Castro began campaigning for a seat in congress as a replacement for Orthodox party leader Eduardo Chibàs, • March 10,1953- General Batista and a group of army conspirators overthrew the regime of Cuban president Carlos Prí­o Socarràs. • For Castro, violence seemed the only way to oppose the military coup so he organized a group of followers and on July 26, 1953, attacked the Moncada military barracks in Oriente Province. • Castro was captured and sentenced to 15 years in prison. During his trial he delivered a lengthy defense in what would become his most famous speech, La historia me absolverà, attacking Batista's regime and outlining his own political and economic ideas Rise to Power

    4. After Castro was released in 1955, he was exiled to Mexico City. Here he started to plan an expedition against Batista in which he called the 26th of July Movement. • Dec. 2, 1956- Castro, his brother Raul, and 80 other men went to Oriente Province. • With only 12 remaining, the rest of which were killed or captured, Castro fled to the Sierra Maestra, forming a plan of guerrilla operation. • During his time in the mountains, there was an increase in opposition to Batista’s regime and students and followers of Prío attacked the Presidential Palace on March 13, 1957 where they nearly succeeded in killing Batista Rise to Power

    5.  Castro emerged as the undisputed leader of the anti-Batista opposition, and his guerrillas increased their control over rural areas. • April 9, 1958- Castro called a national strike, which was called off after Batista ordered strikers to be shot on sight, causing massive shootings. • The regime fell on December 31 when Batista’s army became defected. Rise to Power

    6. January 1, 1959- Castro and his July 26th movement assumed power, proclaimed a provisional government, and began public trials and executions of "criminals" of the Batista regime. • February 15- Castro replaced José Mirò Cardona as prime minister and appointed his own brother, Raùl Castro, as commander of the armed forces. • Castro emphasized in his speeches about morality and public virtue also the importance of committing to democracy and social reform. • He also promised free elections Rise to Power

    7. Castro denied that he was a communist and promoted the idea that the revolution was humanistic promising his followers a nationalistic government. • This way the government would respect private property in Cuba and to uphold its international obligations. • Castro reduced residential rents and passes agrarian reform law that confiscated inherited property. In reality the areas seized into state farms and farmers became government employees. Castro in Power

    8. By 1959 a radicalization of the revolution had begun to take place. Defective military leaders were replaced by radical and communist militants. • Castro reached out to other communist countries including the Soviet Union. • The United States refused refine Soviet petroleum and in return Castro took control of the American oil refineries in Cuba. • January 3, 1961- U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower broke relations with Cuba. Castro in Power

    9. The failure of the invasion of the Bay of Pigs by President John F. Kennedy confirmed Castro’s Power and he declared his regime as a socialist. • This led to Private schools falling under government control and an increase in educational facilities, and a nationwide literacy campaign. • Sanitation and health improved with the establishment of rural hospitals and clinics. • Religious institutions were suppressed and clergymen expelled from the island. Castro in Power

    10. In December 1961 Castro declared himself to be a Marxist Leninist. He combined all groups that fought against Batista and transformed them into the Communist Party of Cuba. • In 1962, the Cuban Missile Crisis strained relations between Cuba and Soviet Union. • Castro allowed the U.S.S.R. to install nuclear missiles which were medium range aimed towards the United States. • Castro felt humiliated when President JFK protested to remove the missiles. Castro in Power

    11. After the Havana Conference in 1964, the Soviet Union had successfully slowed down Castro’s support system in arming South America. • By 1966 Castro founded in Havana the Asia-Africa-Latin America People's Solidarity Organization to promote revolution on three continents. • In July 1967 he formed the Latin American Solidarity Organization to prevent violence in Latin America. • Castro's efforts were unsuccessful, as demonstrated by the failure of Che Guevara's guerrilla campaign in Bolivia in 1967. Castro in Power

    12. One of Castro's goals was to remove opposition to his rule, which he accomplished not only with executions and imprisonments, but through forced emigrations. • In April 1980, Castro opened the port of Mariel for outsiders to help the exiled Cubans in Florida to sail back for their family. • Castro took advantage of this situation and loaded the boats with prison inmates and psychiatric patients. Castro in Power

    13. In the early 1990s, Castro’s revolution began to lose momentum. Without the support of Soviet Union, Cuba’s economy had to deal with an increase in inflation and unemployment. • Castro visited the United States in 1996 to invite all Cuban exiles to return back to Cuba • This restored stability in Cuba and he was able to regain support from his people. • In the fall of 2002, there were signs that Castro might outlive the U.S. trade embargo against Cuba Castro in Power

    14. This three day food fair brought Americans to Cuba hoping for new markets. But the Bush administration opposed ties with Cuba. • Castro made his last public appearnce before turning ill when he attended the organization meeting for the capitalist trade agreement promoted by the United Sates. • Castro turned 80 in 2006 and his brother, Raul, took his position. Castro in Power

    15. Introduction • Cuba was under bad conditions which led to Castro’s rise. February 15- Castro replaced José Mirò Cardona as prime minister and appointed his own brother, Raùl Castro, as commander of the armed forces. • When Batista’s regime had failed Castro became the undisputed leader. • He was a successful speaker and his speeches were appreciated by the Cubans. • Attempting to consolidate his support inside Cuba, Castro introduced several reforms. • Castro emphasized in his speeches about morality and public virtue also the importance of committing to democracy and social reform Discuss the Successes and Failures of Fidel Castro

    16. Successes • Castro reduced residential rents and passes agrarian reform law that confiscated inherited property. In reality the areas seized into state farms and farmers became government employees • By 1959 a radicalization of the revolution had begun to take place. Defective military leaders were replaced by radical and communist militants. • Castro reached out to other communist countries including the Soviet Union. • Sanitation and health improved with the establishment of rural hospitals and clinics. • Religious institutions were suppressed and clergymen expelled from the island. • In December 1961 Castro declared himself to be a Marxist Leninist. He combined all groups that fought against Batista and transformed them into the Communist Party of Cuba. • By1966 Castro founded in Havana the Asia-Africa-Latin America People's Solidarity Organization to promote revolution on three continents. • In July 1967 he formed the Latin American Solidarity Organization to prevent violence in Latin America. • One of Castro's goals was to remove opposition to his rule, which he accomplished not only with executions and imprisonments, but through forced emigrations. • In April 1980, Castro opened the port of Mariel for outsiders to help the exiled Cubans in Florida to sail back for their family. • Castro took advantage of this situation and loaded the boats with prison inmates and psychiatric patients.

    17. Failures • The United States refused refine Soviet petroleum • January 3, 1961- U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower broke relations with Cuba. • In 1962, the Cuban Missile Crisis strained relations between Cuba and Soviet Union. • Castro felt humiliated when President JFK protested to remove the missiles. • After the Havana Conference in 1964, the Soviet Union had successfully slowed down Castro’s support system in arming South America. • Castro's efforts were unsuccessful, as demonstrated by the failure of Che Guevara's guerrilla campaign in Bolivia in 1967. • In the early 1990s, Castro’s revolution began to lose momentum. Without the support of Soviet Union, Cuba’s economy had to deal with an increase in inflation and unemployment. • The three day food fair brought Americans to Cuba hoping for new markets. But the Bush administration opposed ties with Cuba.

    18. Conclusion • Castro had many plans for Cuba many of which went on to become successful, others failed miserably. • For a long time the economy in Cuba was successful due to Castro’s ties with the Soviet Union. • Conditions with the U.S. have yet to improve. •  Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for the Western Hemisphere Dan Fisk accused Cuba of interfering with the U.S. war on terrorism by giving false leads to the U.S.  • Raul has taken Castro’s place as President in Cuba as Castro has fallen ill.

    19. "Castro Ruz, Fidel (1926-)." Encyclopedia of World Biography. Detroit: Gale, 1998.Gale World History In Context. Web. 03 Jan. 2013. "Cuba Policy: Has U.S. Policy Toward Fidel Castro in Cuba been Prudent and Effective?" History in Dispute. Ed. Benjamin Frankel. Vol. 1: The Cold War: First Series. Detroit: St. James Press, 2000. 91-100. Gale World History In Context. Web. 03 Jan. 2013. "Fidel Castro." Newsmakers. Detroit: Gale, 1991. Gale World History In Context. Web. 04 Jan. 2013. "Fidel Castro Ruz, President of Cuba, 1967-- Prime Minister of Cuba, 1959--1967."The Cold War--1945- 1991. Gale, 1992. Gale World History In Context. Web. 27 Dec. 2012. McManus, John F. "Cuba Under Fidel and Raul." New American Vol. 24 No. 9. 28 Apr 2008: 35-38. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 28 Dec 2012. Morales, WaltraudQueiser. "After Fidel: What Future for U.S.-Cuban Relations?." Military Review (U.S. Army) Vol. 87, No. 5. Sept. 30 2007: 90-100. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 03 Jan 2013. "Ninth Ibero-American Summit: Castro Criticized; U.S. Denounced..." Issue Focus. Nov. 19 1999: n.p. SIRS Government Reporter. Web. 03 Jan 2013. Bibliography