Section 9.3: The Federalists in Charge Today ‘s Essential Question: How did political disagreements lead to the formation of political parties?
Vocabulary • political party – a group of people that tries to promote its ideas and influence government, and also backs candidates for office • foreign policy – relations with the governments of other countries • domestic – coming from one’s own country
Check for Understanding • What is today’s Essential Question? • Name an important political party. • What country’s foreign policy is or once was hostile to the United States? • What is a domestic wine?
What is foreign policy? Foreign policy is the way in which the governments of different countries relate to each other.
What is a political party? A political party is a group of people that tries to promote its ideas and influence government, and also backs candidates for office.
What We Already Know The members of our country’s first presidential cabinet were very talented men.
What We Already Know Jefferson and Hamilton had first clashed over several parts of Hamilton’s financial plan.
What We Already Know They also disagreed over which side the United States should support in the new war between France and Britain.
In 1789, Washington had come to the presidency greatly admired by the American people.
During his second term, however, opponents of Jay’s Treaty led attacks on the president.
Supporters of the French Revolution also criticized him for his neutrality policy.
Cabinet members Jefferson and Hamilton disagreed over many issues, starting with the national bank. Only George Washington’s leadership made it possible for the two men to work together in the cabinet.
In 1796, President George Washington decided to retire. • He had served two terms in office and wanted to return to his quiet life as a wealthy Virginia planter. • But as he left office, he had two fears for the future of the nation.
Washington’s Fears • He feared what would happen if the United States made alliances with foreign countries. • He feared what would happen if people ever formed political parties.
Washington’s ‘Farewell Address’ • He urged the nation to remain neutral and “steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world.” • He warned that agreements with foreign nations might work against U.S. interests. • His advice guided U.S. foreign policy into the 20th Century.
Washington also warned against forming political parties. • During his second term, divisions between his cabinet began to create political parties. • In his Farewell Address, Washington warned of the dangers of political division, or what he termed “the spirit of party.” • Despite his advice, political parties became a part of American politics.
10. What two pieces of advice did Washington give in his Farewell Address? • Avoid political parties and divisions. • The country must abandon slavery. • The country should remain neutral. • Settle the West as rapidly as possible. • The nation must not to violate the treaties they had signed with Native Americans.
Why did Washington favor neutrality with other countries? Alliances with other nations might work against American interests. Neutrality would be the best way to promote trade with European nations. The United States was powerful enough and didn’t need help from other nations. Most European nations were dishonest and could not be trusted.
Growth of Political Parties • Despite Washington’s warning against political parties, Americans were deeply divided over how the nation should be run. • During Washington’s first term, Hamilton and Jefferson had hotly debated the direction the new nation should take. • During Washington’s second term, Jefferson resigned and Madison took his place in the cabinet and in the debates with Hamilton.
Growth of Political Parties • As Hamilton and Madison argued, other Americans gathered around whichever of these two men they agreed with. • Their differences on foreign and domestic policy led to the nation’s first political parties.
11. What led to the rise of political parties? • The growing expense of election campaigns • Disagreements over which class of people should run the nation • Different views on economic policy • Differing interpretations of the Constitution • Washington’s favoritism toward Jefferson Choose all that are true!
The new political parties were the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans. Hamilton Jefferson and Madison
Together, Jefferson and Madison founded the Democratic-Republican Party. The party name reflected their strong belief in democracy, states’ rights, and their concern for individual liberties. James Madison
Hamilton continued to lead the Federalists. Hamilton’s followers kept the name ‘Federalists’ from the days of the ratification debate.
The supporters of the Federalists included lawyers, merchants, manufacturers, and the wealthy.
The Federalists and the Government The Federalists supported a stronger national government, with more power than the state governments.
Jefferson and Hamilton disagreed over interpretation of the Constitution. Hamilton was a loose constructionist, and claimed the elastic clause gave Congress broad legislative powers. Jefferson was a strict constructionist, who wanted to limit the powers of government.
These differences became clear when Hamilton called for Congress to charter a national bank. • Jefferson opposed the bank on the grounds it was unconstitutional. • Congress, however, voted in favor of Hamilton’s bank proposal.
The Federalist Party and the Common People • Federalists saw the common people as dangerously unstable. • They believed the wealthy and the well-educated should have the greater voice in government, because they would be more likely to govern well than the common people.
As a former banker and businessman, Hamilton had a distinct vision of the nation’s future. Hamilton wanted a United States in which the economy was based on manufacturing, trade, and cities.
The Democratic-Republicans viewed government and society differently. • They feared that a strong government could lead to monarchy, or to rule by the wealthy upper classes. • They wanted more power given to the states.
Unlike the Federalists, they trusted the common people. • The Democratic-Republicans saw in the common people a great deal of honesty and good judgment, so they wanted them to have a large role in government. • Their ideas drew farmers, shopkeepers, workers, and recent immigrants to the new party.
Unlike Hamilton, Jefferson and Madison pictured a rural nation of planters and farmers. They believed such people would make good, honest citizens that could not be corrupted by bribes and political promises.
In 1796, John Adams defeated Thomas Jefferson in the presidential election. The nation now had a Federalist president and a Democratic-Republican vice-president.
Problems with France • When Adams took office in 1797, France and Britain were at war. • Federalists tended to support the British in this war, while Democratic-Republicans were sympathetic to France.
Problems with France • The French began seizing U.S. ships to prevent them from trading with the British. • Within the year, the French had looted more than 300 U.S. ships.
Problems with France • American anger toward France grew and some Federalists called for war. • Many Democratic-Republicans publically criticized Adams and the Federalists for trading with the British instead of supporting France.
The XYZ Affair • Adams hoped talks would restore calm, so he sent Charles Pinckney, Elbridge Gerry, and John Marshall to Paris. • There they requested a meeting with the French minister of foreign affairs, but were ignored for three weeks.
The XYZ Affair Then three French agents—later referred to as X, Y, and Z— told the Americans that talks with the minister would occur only if the Americans agreed to loan France $10 million and to pay the minister a bribe of $250,000.
The XYZ Affair • The Americans refused, and Adams received a full report of what became known as the XYZ Affair. • The American public was outraged by this insult to the nation.
The XYZ Affair • Congress canceled its treaties with France and allowed U.S. ships to seize French vessels. • Congress also set aside money to expand the navy and the army.
12. What was the result of the XYZ Affair? • Congress cancelled our treaty with France. • Adams made an alliance with Britain. • The United States began building up the navy in preparation for war with France. • Congress authorized American ships to raid French vessels. Choose the response that is NOT TRUE!
Angered by criticism in a time of crisis, Adams blamed the Democratic-Republican newspapers.
The Alien and Sedition Acts • To silence their critics and weaken the Democratic-Republicans, the Federalist Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798. • These acts were aimed at aliens because they usually joined the Democratic-Republicans. • They also targeted newspapers that supported Democratic-Republicans.
The Alien and Sedition Acts • An alien is an immigrant who is not yet a citizen of the country they live in. • Sedition is the act of stirring up a rebellion. • The Acts increased the waiting period for becoming a U.S. citizen from 5 to 14 years. • The Acts gave the president the power to arrest disloyal aliens or to order them out of the country during wartime. • The Acts made it a crime to say or write anything false or critical about the gov-ernment.