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San Francisco Chronicle: 1905. CRIME AND POVERTY GO HAND IN HAND WITH ASIATIC LABOR BROWN MEN ARE MADE CITIZENS ILLEGALLY JAPANESE MEN A MENACE TO AMERICAN WOMEN BROWN MEN AN EVIL IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS THE YELLOW PERIL—HOW JAPANESE CROWD OUT THE WHITE RACE

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san francisco chronicle 1905
San Francisco Chronicle: 1905
  • CRIME AND POVERTY GO HAND IN HAND WITH ASIATIC LABOR
  • BROWN MEN ARE MADE CITIZENS ILLEGALLY
  • JAPANESE MEN A MENACE TO AMERICAN WOMEN
  • BROWN MEN AN EVIL IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS
  • THE YELLOW PERIL—HOW JAPANESE CROWD OUT THE WHITE RACE
  • BROWN PERIL ASSUMES NATIONAL PROPORTIONS
japanese farm workers
Japanese Farm Workers
  • 1868: Meiji Restoration
  • 1882: only 86 Japanese in CA
  • 1890 quietly imported for sugar beet production
  • Experienced farmers
  • Ideal migratory laborers
  • No opposition from any source
slide3
New crops: rice, cantaloupes, berries, reclamation of waste lands
  • 1904 Japanese owned 2,442 acres and leased over 50,000
  • Gentleman’s Agreement of 1907
  • 1913: Alien Land Law
    • 1870 Naturalization Act limits American citizenship to "white persons and persons of African descent," barring Asians from U.S. citizenship. 
  • 1920: more stringent Alien Land Law
slide4
Story of dairy farmers

Story of Dorothy

punjabi farm workers
Punjab province in India: many former military men

1910 arrive in IV for first commercial cotton crops

Racism

Male colonies

Land owners

1915 Jawala Ram murdered in IV

Punjabi Farm Workers
1925 story of pakhar singh s 50k lettuce crop
Cheated by shippers

Verbal agreements

No longer had use of courts

Murdered both shippers by shooting and with an axe

Cultural values

1925: Story of Pakhar Singh’s 50K lettuce crop
slide7
Second KKK: 1920s

Urbanization, industrialization, immigration

“100 percent Americanism”

1915: Leo Frank, Birth of a Nation

Blacks in South

3-4 million members

1921 operating in 45 states

Invested in political campaigns for local and state offices

KKK
birth of a nation
Birth of a Nation
  • How is the KKK portrayed?
    • What are some reasons for this?
  • How are black soldiers portrayed?
  • Did any scenes stand out?
  • What does this film say about racial views in the U.S. during the early twentieth century?
the 1920s
increasingly urban Mexican population

Segregation

Poor living conditions

Mexicans as racially inferior or culturally inferior

The 1920s
slide11
Slum-corrals built in 1913 in Texas and occupied continuously since then. Six outdoor flush type toilets and one shower are provided for the more than one hundred people.
slide12
Entire family groups move from Texas to Wyoming for work in the sugar beet fields. En route at San Angelo, Texas.
slide13
Ben Cortez, who had been in bed at home with tuberculosis for four months. 8,000 cases of tuberculosis in the county; there are only twenty beds in the county tuberculosis sanitarium, which is designed to supplement the state sanitarium—at which there is a long waiting list. Corpus Christi, Texas. (1949)
health issues
High infant mortality

Well baby clinics

Racial inferiority blamed

Racist stereotypes

Health Issues
education
The IQ test

Tracking

Segregation in schools

Racism and education

No-Spanish rule

Vela v. Board of Trustees

Capitalism and segregation

Education
1919 el paso laundry strike
Laundry Workers’ Union

Isabella and Manuela Hernandez

American Federation of Labor

International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers

Dual wage system ($4-$6 per week)

200 women strike---total of 600 including sympathy strikers

Surplus labor

Union consciousness, community solidarity

1919: El Paso Laundry Strike
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