I. CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I WWI LECTURE 1
WORLD POPULATION • 1900 = 1.6 billion • 1927 = 2 billion • TODAY (2006) = 6.5 billion
World War I : 1914-1918 (1920) A. Main Causes : The main reasons for the outbreak of World War I were : 1. IMPERIALISM 2. NATIONALISM 3. MILITARISM 4. ALLIANCES
1. Imperialism • The attempt to create an empire either directly or indirectly through economic and political dominance ; • the effort to dominate trade and government of other lands; • a nation’s attempt to gain control of weaker nations
2. MILITARISM - a nation’s policy to maintain strong armed forces • Great Britain and Germany raced to have the largest navies . • France, Russia and Germany competed in building powerful armies. • Creates feeling of invincibility • VOCAB: dreadnought ; preparedness; arms race
3. NATIONALISMdefinition # 1. extreme loyalty to a nation and concern for its welfare (Blind patriotism ; manifest destiny) • European nations sought to justify wars to regain lost territories and/or add land
3. Nationalismdefinition # 2.Desire and advocacy for National independence • National groups within the Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) wanted independence • VOCAB : Self Determination
Imperialism leads to Militarism Nationalism
Imperialism Leads to MilitarismWhy ? • Strong Military needed to: • Build an empire • Maintain an empire
Imperialism leads to Nationalism Why ? Patriotism (definition # 1) - needed to justify empire (manifest destiny) Conquered people often want - self government (definition #2)
Nationalism leads to Militarism Why ? • Extreme patriotism (definition # 1) • supports the idea that it is noble to die for one’s country • Dulce et decorum Est Pro patria mori • Ruling over a people or nation who want to be independent (definition # 2) • requires military force/war
Competing for colonies and land (imperialism) lead to conflict • Feelings of cultural superiority (nationalism- 1) make war a noble cause • Fighting for independence (nationalism -2) from an empire requires force sometimes • When you are prepared to go to war (militarism), you will more likely choose war when a conflict situation arises. Feeling of invincibility
4. ALLIANCES • Military alliances = an attack o one is an attack on all members of the alliance • military agreements among nations before WWI created to prevent war by establishing a • balance of power – a situation in which the power of rival nations is roughly equal = nobody can win
a.Triple Alliance – 1882 • Germany • Austria-Hungary • Italy
b. Triple Entente – 1907 • France • Great Britain • Russia
B. Historic Antagonism: 1. France vs. Germany over Alsace and Lorraine
B. Historic Antagonism 2. Germany and Great Britain enter an arms race for naval superiority • Led to stronger ties between Great Britain and France against Germany
B. Historic Antagonism: 3. Austria-Hungary vs. Russia over the Balkans. • The Balkans • Russia’s access to the sea • “powder keg” of Europe
a. The Balkan countries were : • Serbia • Albania • Montenegro • Bulgaria • Romania • Greece
C.Trigger Event leading to the outbreak of WWI 1. June 28,1914- Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand • Heir to the throne of Austria – Hungary • Killed by Gavrilo Princip • a Bosnian nationalist • living in independent Serbia as a refugee • associated with the Serbian group The Black Hand • wanted Bosnia to be • independent from Austria-Hungary • part of a Greater Serbia that would unite all ethnic Slavs
July 3, 1914-Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia 2. Declarations of War • Russia enters the war on the side of Serbia • Germany joins Austria-Hungary
Germany declares war on Russia and France • Germany attacks France through neutral Belgium
II. THE GREAT WAR begins(later named World War I) • Major powers launched offensives • 6 million men immediately went to war • German forces stopped in eastern France • Russian forces stopped near eastern borders of Germany & A-H
A. “Poor Little Belgium” 1. Schlieffen Plan 2. Big Bertha • When war was declared in the European empires what was the attitude of young men enlisting ? What was motivating their enlistment? • What kind of warfare took place in Belgium? • Explain the expression “Poor little Belgium” .
A. “Poor Little Belgium” When war was declared in European empires what was the attitude of young men enlisting? What was motivating their enlistments? • Eagerness to serve the country; broad outlook – think of our nation, our fatherland, God; patriotism • Do the young men of Europe really know what they are fighting for? • CURRENT EVENTS CONNECTION: What motivates American men and women to enlist today? Is the motivation to enlist different in peacetime and wartime?
A. “Poor Little Belgium” • What did the phrase by Kaiser Wilhelm II– “Paris for lunch; St Petersburg for dinner” - refer to? • What was the Schlieffen Plan ?
Schlieffen Plan • German war plan executed at beginning of WWI • Germany’s problem = fighting a two front war • Posed solution • Rapid , massive invasion of France w/a defensive screen in east • After defeat west , then send troops east • 1914 = Germany swept thru Belgium & drove toward Paris
A. “Poor Little Belgium” • What kind of warfare took place in Belgium? Describe. • What did this kind of warfare cause? What effect did it have on Germany? • Explain the expression “poor little Belgium” and its effects on the war. Do you agree or disagree with the sentiment expressed in the phrase? Why or Why not? • Discuss the use of propaganda from this incident. • Look up history of the word Hun. • Were the atrocities in Belgium exaggerated?
A. “Poor Little Belgium” Current Events Connection • What similarities exist between the type of warfare in Iraq and the type of warfare in Belgium? • Operation Iron Hammer (2003) in Iraq was retaliation (reprisal) for all of the attacks on US troops in the Sunni Triangle • Do women, children and unarmed civilians die in these kinds of bombings ? • How many CIVILIAN deaths so far in Iraq ? • Approx. 75,000-80,000 • See Website link • http://edition.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2003/iraq/forces/casualties/ • How many coalition deaths (most US soldiers) ? • 4,129 (total coalition forces) • 3,734 (Americans) • See Website link • http://edition.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2003/iraq/forces/casualties/
A. “Poor Little Belgium” Current Events Connection • How do atrocities and civilian casualties hurt American goals in Iraq ? • Increase Anti-American feeling in the country & the region & the world ? • Do they make it easier for the some countries in the world to “demonize” us ? • Are US “atrocities” / civilian casualties used as propaganda to depict us as monsters ? • Is there a “poor little Iraq” syndrome = sympathy for the insurgents ? • Do we judge & hold other countries accountable for atrocities they commit against American civilians ?
Current Events Connection • Read News article aloud in class • Current Events Reflection # 2 • YOU are judge & jury what should happen to the American soldiers • Vela • Hensley • T shape brainstorm (on Front) • Your decision/opinion/thoughts (on Back) • Pair-Share/ Turn&Talk with a partner your response
HOMEWORK • Read the Spokesman Review Editorialon the incident described in the news article. • Write an Editorial for the Cedar Post regarding the news event responding to the event and the viewpoint expressed in the Spokesman Review Editorial. • Discuss w/parents or other adults you respect
WAR REFLECTION 5 • Just War Principle # 3 : In a just war civilians must not be targets of the fighting and great care must be taken to avoid casualties. • Do you agree/disagree with this just war principle? Do you think it is a valid criteria? Why or Why not ? • Apply this principle to what you know about World War I
B. Stalemate • VOCAB • Why had WWI turned to stalemate ? • How did this stalemate situation effect the soldiers ?
B. Stalemate • By the end of 1914 WWI had turned into a stalemate = battle lines hardly budged for next three years • Devastating weapons = armies dug trenches • The Western Front was the line of trench warfare in France during WWI. Christmas Truce 1914 The senselessness of the war becomes apparent for a brief moment before the stalemate and killing resume Churchill Quote
Winston Churchill “What would happen, I wonder if the armies suddenly and simultaneously went on strike and said some other method must be found of settling the dispute ?”
Armenian Genocide • The legal definition of genocide • The international legal definition of the crime of genocide is found in Articles II and III of the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide. • any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group: • (a) Killing members of the group; • (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; • (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; • (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; • (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. • Five punishable forms of the crime of genocide: • genocide; • conspiracy, • incitement, • attempt • complicity.
Armenian Genocide • the forcible deportation and massacre of ~ 500,000 to 1.5 million Armenians from 1915 to 1917 in the Ottoman Empire. • ethnic cleansing of Christian Armenians by Muslim Turks • widely acknowledged as one of the first modern, systematic genocides • To date twenty-two countries have officially recognized it as genocide. • The government of the Republic of Turkey rejects the characterization of the events as genocide.
Armenian Genocide • Video clip
Armenian Genocide • EXTRA CREDIT : CURRENT EVENTS CONNECTION • News Article “ Panel passes genocide resolution – WWI killings of Armenians is a delicate issue.” • Read news articles (more than the one I gave you) on the pros/cons of the US passing the Armenian Genocide Resolution. To find OTHER news articles Google - Armenian Genocide Resolution http://news.google.com/news?q=Armenian+Genocide+resolution&hl=en&safe=active&um=1&ie=UTF8&sa=X&oi=news_result&resnum=1&ct=title 2. List the pros/ cons ( T – shape brainstorm) 3. What is your opinion ~ should the US Congress pass the resolution? Why or Why not?
EXTRA CREDIT RESEARCH IDEAS • Kaiser Wilhelm II • Rasputin • Nicholas II • Lenin • Gavrilo Princips
The Great War • Global military conflict = later known as WWI • 1914-1920 • Fighting took place • Mainly in Europe • But also in Africa & Middle East and on seas • Total War • Large-scale combat fought on land, sea ,air • Modern weapons & technology • Battle of economics & industrial output • Cities & civilians involved
Allies England France Russia U.S. Many other nations Central Powers Germany Austrian-Hungarian Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Allies vs. Central Powers
Causes of World War I • Explosive situation created in Europe by early 1900s • Extreme nationalism • Imperialism • Militarism • Opposing alliances • War sparked by assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
Extreme Nationalism • Nationalism = pride & loyalty to one’s nation • 1800s – increased nationalism in Europe • Chauvinism, jingoism • Spread of democracy • Industrial Revolution = compete for markets & resources • By late 1800s = intense nationalism in Europe
Imperialism • Imperialism = domination of one country over another • Europe in late 1800s • Increased nationalism & industrialization = increased imperialism • Small nations desired status of the “Great Powers” • Competitive , predatory environment created • Nations raced to divide up world for wealth , resources, markets (division of Africa)
Opposing Alliances • During much of 1800s = peace was maintained by system of interlocking alliances • Europe in early 1900s • Old alliances fell apart • New alliances divided Europe into opposing sides • Europe = “powder keg”