Biochemistry Unit. PowerPoint #1 – the basics and water…. Matter. Defined as anything that takes up space and has mass Structure of matter refers to its composition – what it is made of – AND how matter is organized…
PowerPoint #1 – the basics and water…
90 occur naturally; the rest are synthetic or radioactive
Are put into “families” on the Periodic Table
Look at Table 6.1
What are trace elements?
Found in the body in very small amounts, yet play vital roles!
-- coefficents are used to indicate the amount of each compound present
2H2 + O2 2H2O
# of atoms: H= 4 O=2 ( 6 total)
# of atoms: 45
# of atoms: 180
a. N2(g) + 3 H2(g) 2 NH3 (g)
b. CaCO3 (s) CaO (s) + CO2 (g)
c. 2 Se (s) + 3 O2(g) 2 SeO3 (g)
The Octet Rule:
Force that holds 2 atoms together; each atom is looking to fill its outer orbital for stability
Octet rule applies for additional orbitals…
compounds are formed
Ex. DNA molecule, water
*BUT, hydrogen bonds as a GROUP are very supportive and provide structure…
Solutions and Suspensions are types of mixtures:
Solutions are mixtures of two or more substances in which the molecules of the substances are evenly distributed..
Suspensions: mixtures of liquid and nondissolved materials, so there is unequal distribution of materials here…
*if they dissolve, it is a solution
*if they don’t dissolve, it is a
it is a polar molecule – demonstrates unequal sharing of electrons in the covalent bonds
The Oxygen is much bigger than the Hydrogens, so the electrons spend more time near the Oxygen, making that end of the molecule appear more negative and the Hydrogens ends appear more positive…
Forms a hydration shell – ions are surrounded by the water molecules and float away into solution (dissolving)
Ex. Cotton fibers used in bath towels
Hydrophobic substances REPEL water and are NOT attracted to it – won’t mix!
Ex: oil in water
those dang “blind dates ” again!
pH – is a logarithmic scale – every number change is a ten-fold change!!!
the acid loses a H+
the base loses a OH-
and the reaction forms a salt and water
…this reaction brings the pH back closer to 7 and is called a buffering reaction…
By the way, is this equation balanced?