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Models of Psychopathology
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  1. Models of Psychopathology • Unidimensional Models • One Cause of a Disorder • Multidimensional Models • Multiple, Linear Causes • Diathesis-Stress Model • Reciprocal Models • Reciprocal Gene-Environmental Model

  2. Contributing Factors • Biological Factors • Genetics • Other organic factors • Psychological Factors • Cognition • Behavior • Emotion

  3. Contributing Factors (2) • Social Factors • Interpersonal • Familial • Siocioeconomic • Cultural Factors • Norms • Beliefs • Developmental Factors

  4. Biological Factors • Neuronal Structure and Function • Brain Structure and Function • Nervous System Structure • Fight or Flight Reaction

  5. Neurons • Structure of Neurons • Soma • Dendrites • Axon • Axon terminals • Synapses • Electrochemical Communication • Action Potential • Neurotransmitters

  6. Neurotransmission

  7. How Neurotransmitters Work

  8. Neurons

  9. Function of Neurotransmitters (and Medication) • Agonists, Antagonists, Inverse Agonists • Serotonin (Many, SSRIs) • Widespread, esp. in cortex • Behavior, mood, thought • GABA (Benzodiazepines) • Anxiety and stress reduction • Muscle relaxation • Reduced arousal and emotion (increased passivity)

  10. Function of Neurotransmitters (and Medication) (2) • Norepinephrine (Autonomic Functions) • aka noradrenaline • Indirect effects • Dopamine • Overlap with Serotonin Circuits • Motor behavior • Exploratory, Pleasure-Seeking • Schizophrenia (too much) • Parkinson’s Disease (too little)

  11. Brain Structure • Three Main Divisions • Hindbrain • Midbrain • Forebrain

  12. Divisions of the Brain • Hindbrain • Medulla – Heart rate, blood pressure, respiration • Pons – Regulates sleep stages • Cerebellum – Involved in physical coordination • Midbrain • Coordinates movement with sensory input • Contains parts of the reticular activating system (RAS) • Forebrain (Cerebral Cortex) • Location of most sensory, emotional, and cognitive processing • Two hemispheres joined by the corpus callosum

  13. Brain Structures

  14. Lobes of Cerebral Cortex • Frontal • Thinking and reasoning abilities, memory • Parietal • Touch recognition • Occipital • Integrates visual input • Temporal • Recognition of sights and sounds and long-term memory storage

  15. Cerebral Cortex Lobes

  16. Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex

  17. Peripheral Nervous System • Somatic Branch of PNS • Controls voluntary muscles and movement • Autonomic Branch of the PNS • Sympathetic • Parasympathetic

  18. Autonomic Nervous System

  19. The Endocrine System • Hormones • The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenalcortical Axis (HYPAC axis) • Integration of endocrine and nervous system function

  20. Implications of Neuroscience for Psychopathology • Connection Between Neurological Processes and Abnormal Behavior • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder • Depression • Anxiety • Schizophrenia • Others… • All Disorders?

  21. Implications (cont.) • Causal Connection? • Experience Can Change Brain Structure and Function • Medications and Psychotherapy Can Change Brain Structure and Function • “Filling Fallacy” • Cavities caused by lack of metal in tooth • Headache caused by lack of aspirin • Beware of the typical assumption

  22. Beyond Biological Factors • Cultural Factors • Influence the form and expression of normal and abnormal behavior • Culture-bound Syndromes • Amok, Koro, Witiko, Hikikomori, Latah • Anorexia Nervosa • Gender Effects • Exerts a strong and puzzling effect on psychopathology

  23. Beyond Biological Factors (2) • Social Relationships • Frequency and quality related to mortality, disease, and psychopathology • Interpersonal Psychotherapy • Psychopathology Is Culturally, Socially, and Interpersonally Situated

  24. Beyond Biological Factors (3) • Life-Span Developmental Perspective • Addresses developmental changes • Such changes influence and constrain what is normal and abnormal

  25. The Comprehensive Model • Genobiochemiconeuropsychocogno-behavioroemotionofamiliosocio-environmentopoliticoeconomico-culturodevelopmental Model