PSYCHOPATHOLOGY. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT STRATEGIES. ANXIETY, SOMATOFORM, AND DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS. Disorder. Subtypes. Major Symptoms. InRev15a. Anxiety disorders Somatoform disorders Dissociative disorders. Phobias Generalized anxiety disorder Panic disorder
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Generalized anxiety disorder
Dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality disorder)
Intense, irrational fear of objectively nondangerous situations or things, leading to disruptions of behavior.
Excessive anxiety not focused on a specific situation or object; free-floating anxiety.
Repeated attacks of intense fear involving physical symptoms such as faintness, dizziness, and nausea.
Persistent ideas or worries accompanied by ritualistic behaviors performed to neutralize the anxiety-driven thoughts.
A loss of physical ability (e.g., sight, hearing) that is related to psychological factors.
Preoccupation with or belief that one has serious illness in the absence of any physical evidence.
Wide variety of somatic complaints that occur over several years and are not the result of a known physical disorder.
Preoccupation with pain in the absence of physical reasons for the pain.
Sudden, unexpected loss of memory, which may result in relocation and the assumption of a new identity.
Appearance within same person of two or more distinct identities, each with a unique way of thinking and behaving.
Experience reoccurring episodes of anxiety attacks; unpredictable;
some situations might become related to it.
Anxiety attack: 5 needed may last a couple of minutes to hours
tense muscles, especially chest muscles often misinterpreted for heart attack,
choking sensation from tight neck muscles,
faint or dizzy feeling,
hot or cold flashes.
A. Panic Disorder experience reoccurring episodes of anxiety attacks; unpredictable; some situations might become related to it.
Anxiety attack; 5 needed may last a couple of minutes to hours
heart palpitations, tense muscles, especially chest muscles which are often misinterpreted for heart attack, choking sensation from tight neck muscles, faint or dizzy feeling, increase sweat, hot or cold flashes.
Persistent level of anxiety lasting at least one month Symptoms:
Motor: Tension of muscles: shakes, tremble,
unable to relax, twitch, startle easily
Autonomic hyperactivity: Sweat, increased heart
rate, cold hands, hot, cold flashes, light headed
Vigilance and scanning: hyperattentive to things in
the environment, distractible, hard to
concentrate, impatient, irritable.
Irrational fear response of specific stimuli
Marked by overt ritualistic
behavior and persistent
Occurs at a frequency so high
as to interfere with daily
Preoccupation with body and illness
No relief if given healthy diagnosis
Just as tense--travel and search for new physicians
Individual has dramatic physical symptoms with no organic cause.
1. Paralysis of legs/arms/ total
2. Anesthesia--lost sense of touch with parts of body
3. Analgesia--feel no pain
4. Other common experiences: nausea, lower back pain, dizziness,
hysterical blindness, deafness, unexplained headaches
5. Unusually INDIFFERENT to symptoms
6 .Secondary gain for having symptoms
7. May disappear while asleep or under hypnosis
8. Craft Paralysis: symptoms selective to job--paralyzed hands of
violinist or tennis player.
9. Symptoms make no common sense neurologically
Memory for certain events from 1 hour to 3 months is lost
Person is not distressed by loss of memory--intellectual and skills still there.
Theorized as a loss of memory (repression) for traumatic event
Amnesia for entire life & self
Starts a new life in a new location
-called travelling amnesiac
Cause: extreme stress & need to flee
Can last for days, weeks, years.
Extremely rare except on Soaps!
Dominance of 2 or more distinct
Generally amnesic for existence of others
Diathesis Stress Model of Disorders
Emotions major disturbing problem but also problem in cognition (self-defeating thoughts)
1. Dysphoric mood for a minimum of 2 weeks
plus 4 of following:
Change in appetite usually decrease
Change in sleep--insomnia or hypersomnia
Change in amount of psychomotor activity-slow or agitated
Fatigue or loss of energy
Feelings of worthlessness, self critical or inappropriate guilt
Suicide or suicidal ideation
Elevated mood-elation and mania alternating with depressive thoughts
inflated self esteem: too self confident
talkative w/flight of ideas
increased activity, interests, social
decreased need of sleep, distracted
concern that will harm selves
not judge consequences of actions
shopping spree--self destructive buying pattern
Suspiciousness and distrust of others, all of whom are assumed to be hostile.
Detachment from social relationship; restricted range of emotion.
Detachment from, and great discomfort in, social relationships; odd perceptions, thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors.
Helplessness; excessive need to betaken care of; submissive and clinging behavior; difficulty in making decisions.
Preoccupation with orderliness, perfection, and control.
Inhibition in social situations; feelings of inadequacy; oversensitivity to criticism.
Excessive emotionality and preoccupation with being the center of attention; emotional shallowness; overly dramatic behavior.
Exaggerated ideas of self-importance and achievements; preoccupation with fantasies of success; arrogance.
Lack of stability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotion; impulsivity; angry outbursts; intense fear of abandonment; recurring suicidal gestures.
Shameless disregard for, and violation of, other people's rights.
Academic Skills Disorder
Attention Deficit Disorder
UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD
PSYCHOTHERAPY VS NONE