Gaming consoles Presented by PiyushMalhotra 6th SEMESTER IT Roll No: 0747013108
INTRODUCTION • What is a “Gaming console”?? • A gaming console is a form of interactive multimedia used for entertainment. • It is one of the best form of digital entertainment media available. Gaming consoles were initially designed for the sole purpose of playing electronic games. • It provides an interactive and an entertaining computer environment through an electronic device that produces a video display signal which can be used with a display device.
Contd… • Gaming consoles have rapidly evolved since its inception incorporating all the latest advancements in technology namely: • Memory • Processing capabilities • Graphics • Sound
Components of a gaming console • User control interface • CPU • RAM • Software kernel • Storage medium for games • Video output • Audio output • Power supply
HISTORY • The first home gaming console ever made was the Magnavox Odyssey invented by Magnavox in 1972. • The core consisted of 4 dozen diodes and transistors • Limited capabilities, only simple graphics could be produced. • No memory capabilities
ATARI PONG • First ever arcade game created in 1975, inspired by the Odyssey and kick started the first generation of video game consoles. • Simulated table tennis game • Connected to a black and white TV locked in a 4 feet long wooden cabinet • All the wires of the console were soldered into the boards of the cabinet. • Technology based on the transistor-transistor logic where several p-n-p transistors were connected in the forward biased mode.
The Atari 2600 was the second generation gaming console invented by Atari Inc in 1977. • First console to have a microprocessor in its core circuitry, the MOS 6502 • Through this console, the graphics chip, Stella, was introduced. • Memory storage of 128 bytes (RAM)
Atari 2600 • The games for ATARI 2600 consisted of software which was encoded on to the ROM, which in turn were housed in plastic cartridges. • Each cartridge had a maximum capacity of 4 kilobytes,
It was the third generation video game console introduced in 1985 by Nintendo • Revolution in the gaming industry • Introduced two very important concepts to the video game system industry • Use of gamepad controller instead of a joystick • Creating authentic reproduction of arcade video games in terms of graphics
Nintendo entertainment system (NES) • Salient Features • Top loading cartridge slot was replaced with a front-loading mechanism • CPU consisted of a 8-bit microprocessor • 2 Kb on onboard work RAM • Game cartridges contained expanded RAM (up to 16 Kb) to increase memory for efficient game execution.
Nintendo entertainment system (NES) • Salient Features • Separate 2 Kb of Video RAM in a separate processing unit known as the Picture Processing Unit (PPU) • First console to support 5 audio channels, with volume control of 16 levels
Fourth Generation video game console launched by Nintendo in 1991. • It marked a new era in which technology expanded from 8-bit microprocessors to 16-bit microprocessors • Introduced the concept of parallel processing in video game consoles.
Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) • First video game console to have a Direct Memory Access (DMA) unit. • Allowed hardware subsystems to access the system memory without being dependent on the CPU (128 Kb of onboard RAM). • DMA facility allowed PPU to directly access system memory in addition to the 64 Kb VRAM allowing enhanced graphical and video capability.
Fifth Generation Consoles • More commonly known as the 32-bit era or the 3D era. • There were two popular fifth generation consoles • Sega Saturn • Sony PlayStation
Introduced the concept of storing video games in a double speed CD ROM • Using CD ROM drives allowed a high data transfer rate and allowed more storage capacity for each game • It was capable of executing audio CDs, video CDs, photo CDs, and electronic books • Cache memory was introduced in the video game console industry through the Sega Saturn. • Two 256 Kb RAM for 3D graphics just to display effects of polygon rendering, background layers as well as other graphical processes
Sony playstation • The first ever gaming console developed by Sony Computer Entertainment in 1994. • Initiated a series of video game consoles which now span over three generations. • PlayStation was the first of those consoles. • CPU configurations were similar to the Sega Saturn with minor differences.
Sony playstation • The main memory consisted of a 2 MB RAM • Had a separate graphics processing unit which handles 2D graphics and 3D graphic separately. • First console which had the capability of playing Full Motion Videos (FMV). • Automatic detection and booting of games which were stored in CD ROMs.
Sony playstation • Introduced a new innovation of a separate memory card for storing in-game data, with a maximum capacity of 128 Kb.
Sixth generation consoles • This generation saw a shift towards using DVD ROMs for game media. • Games were longer and more visually appealing. • Online multiplayer gaming was supported by network adapters which were provided by these consoles to connect to a broadband internet connection. • Two main consoles: • PlayStation 2 • XBOX
An enhanced version of the PlayStation which was launched in 2000 • Backward compatible with all PlayStation games, controllers, memory cards etc. • An in built CD as well as a DVD player • 64 bit microprocessor with 32 MB RAM with an external 8 MB memory card • Separate graphics and audio processing units with 4 MB and 2 MB RAM respectively
Microsoft XBOX • Microsoft’s first ever gaming console released in 2001 • CPU boasted of an Intel Pentium III processor • Memory of 64 MB RAM • Graphics unit built by NVIDIA • Hard drive consisting of 8-10 GB of space
Seventh generation consoles • Current generation of video game consoles • Include the support of new disc format like the Blu-ray disc and HD DVD • Motion sensing technology and wireless controllers are also new innovations introduced in the seventh generation consoles • Three main consoles: • PlayStation 3 • XBOX 360 • Nintendo Wii
Seventh generation consoles • These consoles are state of the art in terms of CPU processing and memory and are in accordance with the latest technology that we have today • The consoles include support for: • USB and Bluetooth • Wi-fi facilities • Dolby Digital Sound + NVIDIA Graphics • Hard drive capacity in excess of 250 GB
conclusion • Technological advancements from the first generation to the seventh generation consoles can certainly be appreciated • Gaming consoles have helped the industry understand the basic requirements of 3D and multimedia applications. • Gaming is indeed heading in the direction of becoming a mainstream form of entertainment.