Planning, Policy and Management of Transport and Urban Infrastructure (29.11.2004) Organizational StructuresofToll-Expressway Management in Europe Group 2 : GUAN Fang HirokiFujiwara LIU Yinghao
Outline • Overview ofexpressway development and management system in Japan • Overview ofexpressway development and management system in some European countries • Comparison of Japan and European countries • Discussion points
Japan General • The Law, “Law Concerning Special Measures for Highway Construction”in 1952, made it possible to develop toll toads by using Treasury Investments and Loans and by redeeming the loans with toll revenues. • From 1956 to 1970, 4 public corporations was established to undertake national toll road development. • In 1972, the Japanese Government adopted a toll revenue pooling system for the entire national expressway system.
Japan Pooling System • The pooling system is a form of cross-subsidization, under which toll rates are uniform for all of the routes and segments within the network, regardless of the cost or traffic level. Toll Setting Principles • Redemption principle • Fairness and reasonability principle
2. Overview ofexpressway development and management system in some European countries
General Public administration about roads: DFTR (the Ministry of Facilities, Transport and Housing) From 1955, toll road policy was started. Toll(’03 JAN): 0.0686 euro/km (about 8.9 yen/km) (＊1/3 times as much as in Japan) The toll expressways are categorized into 2 types, Autoroutes and LACRA. The toll expressways are operated by 10 entities including both public corporations and companies. France
France Classification of Expressways
France Expressway Network
Financial Structure during 1960’s France Toll 70-60% Subsidy 30-40% Financial Structure of Expressway in France(Data Source: World Bank, 1999) Toll Setting Principles • Redemption principle • Cost burden principle • Reasonable traffic assignment (routes, time)
France Cross-subsidy • The cross-subsidies system was within corporations in the 1970s and among corporations in the 1980s. • The strategy resulted in continuous expressway network expansion and toll harmonization.
France Cross-subsidy • 6 public corporations compose 3 pairs of corporations. SAPN-SANEF SAPRR-AREA ASF-ESCOTA. • The toll revenue is pooled between the corporations of the same pair. SAPN SANEF CONFIROUTE SAPRR ATMB AREA SFTRF ASF ESCOTA
France Examples 1 • Reasonable traffic assignment (time) At A1, which SANEF owns, time fluctuation system about the toll is adopted. Purpose: To moderate the congestion by the traffic from Belgium or Lille to Paris on Sunday The tolls changed in time at A1 (Sunday)
France Examples 2 • Reasonable traffic assignment (routes) From 1995 ~ 1997, SAPRR did the toll adjustment measure to moderate congestion. The adjusted tolls between Paris and Beaune (’95) Ratio of traffic allocation (comparison between with case and without case ‘95)
Italy General • Public administration about roads: ANAS (the Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport) • In 1955, toll policy for expressway development was implemented. • There were 25 toll motorway concessionaires. • The large public company, Autostrade S.p.A., operates 56% of the toll expressways(World Bank, 1999). • Except Autostrade S.p.A., operators of toll expressways are almost all in the operation form of one-road-one-company.
Italy Entity Form of Expressways • In north area，25 semi-corporations operate the expressways. • In middle area, Expressways are operated by the large corporation, Autostrade S.p.A. • In south area, Expressways are operated by ANAS and free to attract local users. Expressway Network
Italy Financial Structure in 1961 Toll 45% Subsidy 55% Financial Structure of Expressway in Italy(Data Source: World Bank, 1999) Toll Setting Principles • User pay / Benefit principle • Redemption principle • Distance proportional
Italy Cross-subsidy • Tolls for motorways operated by Autostrade S.p.A are uniform. The expressways in mountain area have higher toll rate than those in flat area. • A higher level cross-subsidy among different corporations and companies. A “special toll” is collected from the users of expressways by Autostrade S.p.A. and used to provide assistance to unprofitable semi-corporations.
Italy Toll Rate of Autostrade S.p.A (lira/vehicle-km) 1 lira ≒ 0.0555 yen ＊about 1/5~1/4 times as much as in Japan
Italy Telepass – Contactless Toll Collection • Telepass system, which was innovated by Autostrade S.p.A, is the first system in the world for collection that does not require drivers to stop. • The single lane teletoll system has been operated since 1990. • This system are used throughout the network managedby Autostrade itself and on50% of the Italian network managed by other concessionaires.
United Kingdom General • Public administration about roads: DFT (the Ministry of Transport), HA (Highway Agency) • From 1937, general tax became the only source for road construction and operation in UK. • In 1996, there was 3200km motorways in UK with only 8km are tolled. Direct tolls have been charged for very short road links, such as bridges and tunnels. • In 2003, opening of the nation’s first toll expressway(M6 toll) built by a private company.
United Kingdom Expressway Network M6 (the road name in the West Midland)
United Kingdom M6 toll is Britain’s first toll motorway. It was built to ease traffic and congestion through the West Midlands.
Germany General • Public administration about roads: BMVBW (the Ministry of Transport) • From 1955, the large-scale expressway construction was started, and the fuel tax was the source for construction. • All expressways were free of charge. • However, with the increase of heavy trucks of other countries passing through Germany, from 1995 a special charge on these trucks has been implemented. • In 2002, they decided the construction of the first toll expressway in the source of private fund.
Germany Expressway Network Germany’s position makes it the hub of international truck traffic. → ・heavy investments in maintenance and expansion.
Germany OBU System (On Board Units) • The governments decided to induce a distance-based trucktoll for all heavy vehicles 12 tons above. • OBU system is the satellite-supported free-flow system, and used for positioning, monitoring and billing. • OBU system calculates and collects tolls based on the exact number of kilometers traveled on German motorways. • OBU system does not require speed restrictions, stopping, or use of a prescribed traffic lane.
Comparison of Japan and Europe Comparison about the Times when Expressways Constructed 6,559km 11,515km 6,478km 2,976km (46%) The share of expressways built by1969 7,405km (64%) 5,920km (90%) The share of expressways built from 1970 to 1999 3,502km (54%) 4,110km (36%) 639km (10%) Japan Germany Italy
Comparison of Japan and Europe • Public Support • Italy: At the beginning about 20~30%, recently about 30% of construction cost has been subsidized by the government. • France: At the beginning about 10~60% of construction cost was subsidized by the governments. Recently, there was a case of a new road construction that about 40% was supported. • Japan: In 2000, about 10% of total construction cost was subsidized by the government.
Comparison of Japan and Europe Recent Financial Structure of Japan, Italy and France Toll 90% Japan Subsidy 10% Toll 60-70% Toll 70% Subsidy 30-40% Italy France Subsidy 30%
Conclusion In contrast to Japan, some European countries adopted diverse expressway-toll methods. For example, damage to the road, ease of congestion, the rationality of toll, etc are taken into consideration. Maybe the reasons of different organizational structures of Toll-Expressway management among European countries and Japan are the different history, development of expressway, also different financial structures, different economical condition of different parts.