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FORAGE SCIENCE Fac.of A nimal H usbandry Brawijaya U niversity. GRASS. Axonopus compressus P. Beauv. Synonim: P aspalum compressum (Sw.) Nees, Paspalum platycaule Willd. ex Steud., Paspalum platycaulon Poir Local name: Rumput pahitan Rumput karpet Native:

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axonopus compressus p beauv
Axonopus compressus P. Beauv.
  • Synonim:

Paspalum compressum (Sw.) Nees,

Paspalum platycaule Willd. ex Steud.,

Paspalum platycaulonPoir

  • Local name:

Rumput pahitan

Rumput karpet

  • Native:

USA (south east part), Indonesia, West India, African Tropics

  • Perennial plant, spreading by stolon
  • often used as a permanent pasture, ground cover and turfin moist, low fertility soils, particularly in shaded situations.
  • It is generally too low growing to be useful in cut-and-carry systems or for fodder conservation
  • Grow well on tropical and sub-tropical area with high humidity
  • Prefer to grow well on sandy land or clay land which rich of humus
  • Planting at 25 x 25 cm in lenght (tillers)
brachiaria decumbens stapf
Brachiaria decumbens Stapf.
  • Synonim:

Brachiaria eminii

Brachiaria bequaertii

  • Local name:

Rumput Signal

  • Native:

Uganda, Africa

  • Perennial grass, A stoloniferous base and roots developing from the lower nodes producing a dense sward
  • The erect stems arise from a long stoloniferousbase
  • The leaflet color: dark green with smooth hair
  • At first time the growth of grass is so hard but after this hard to control
  • To control, should be cut or by grazing (stocked heavily)
  • a grass of the wet tropics, but it has good drought tolerance and is adapted to a dry season of four or five months.
  • However, it prefers 1,500 mm or more of rain.
  • It does not do well where the dry season is more than five months, butis more productive than Brachiariamutica in the late dry season.
  • Responsive to the addition of N fertilizer and heavy grazing
  • It can grow well at slope land, pH 6-7
  • Show rapid regrowth and good persistence under heavy or frequent defoliation
brachiaria mutica stapf
Brachiaria mutica Stapf.
  • Synonim:

Panicum muticum Forsk.

P. purpurascens Raddi.

  • Local name:

Rumput Para

  • Native:

African Tropics

  • A short-culmed, stoloniferous perennial up to 200 cm high with long, hairy leaf-blades about 16 mm wide.
  • Panicle 10-20 cm long with solitary racemose or compound branches and glabrous, acute, irregularly multiseriate spikelets 3-3.5 mm long (Napper, 1965).
  • Distribution tropical areas of Africa and America, now introduced into most tropical countries.
  • Season of growth: A summer perennial.
  • Altitude range: Sea-level to 1 000 m.
  • Adapted to high-rainfall tropical and subtropical conditions, but in protected areas it can persist with rainfall as low as 900 mm per year.
  • It usually tolerates general drought by reason of its specific swampy environment, being maintained by the residual moisture from the wet season.
  • It prefers alluvial and hydromorphic soils but will grow on a wide range of moist soil types.
brachiaria ruziziensis r germ a nd c m evrard
Brachiaria ruziziensis R. Germ. and C.M. Evrard
  • Synonim:

Urochloa ruziziensis (R. Germ. and C.M. Evrard) Crins.

  • Local name:

Rumput ruzi

  • Native:

Congo, Kenya, and Africa

  • Late flowering perennial similar to B. decumbens, but with the lower glume distant from the rest of the spikelet.
  • Light-green broad hairy leaves and flowers.
  • Cultivated in the humid tropics for pasture
  • Requires light to loam soils of moderately high fertility (pH 5.0–6.8) and cannot tolerate strongly acid conditions
  • For the lowlands and up to 2,000 m in the humid tropics, with a minimum of 1,200 mm AAR.
  • It can tolerate a dry season of 4 months but will die out in extended dry conditions. 
  • Having poor tolerance to flooding, it thrives best on well-drained soils
  • It can stand moderately heavy grazing and requires high levels of fertilizing to persist under frequent cutting. Responsive to N addition
cenchrus ciliaris l
Cenchrus ciliaris L.
  • Synonim:

Pennisetum cenchroides Rich. P. ciliare (L.) Link.

  • Local name:

Rumput buffel

  • Native:

India, Indonesia, African Tropics

  • tufted (sometimes shortly rhizomatous) perennial, with types ranging in habit from ascendant to erect, and branching culms from about 0.3-2.0 m at maturity.
  • sometimes hairy at the base
  • Deep, strong, fibrous root system to >2 m.
  • oftenoccurs in the wild on sandy soils, but is also well adapted to deep, freely draining sandy loam, loam, clay loam,and red earth soils.
  • itmost drought tolerant of the commonly sown grasses,
  • It occursnaturally in areas with average annual rainfall from as low as 100 mm up to about 1,000 mm, but most commonly between 300 and 750 mm
  • Verytolerant of regular cutting or heavy grazing.
cynodon dactylon
Cynodon dactylon
  • Synonim:

Panicum dactylon, Capriola dactylon

Local name:

Rumput Gerinting

Rumput Bermuda

  • Native:


  • A variable perennial,
  • creeping by means of stolons and rhizomes,
  • eight to 40 culms, (rarely) to 90 cm high: leaves hairy or glabrous
  • It has been introduced to all tropical and subtropical, and some temperate regions of the world.
  • Grows on a wide range of soils, but best in relatively fertile, well-drained soils.
  • Usually occurs over an average annual rainfall range of 625-1,750 mm, but down to 550 mm, and up to 4,300 mm.
cynodon plectostachyus k s chum p ilger
Cynodon plectostachyus (K. Schum.) Pilger
  • Synonim:

Leptochloa plectostachyus K. Schum.

  • Local name:

Rumput Afrika (African Star Grass)

  • Native:

East Africa

  • A largely robust, sometimes fine, stoloniferous (non-rhizomatous), deep-rooted group of perennials.
  • It is tolerant of heavy grazing.
  • Grow on a wide range of soil types from sands to heavy clays
  • It grows in areas with an average annual rainfallbetween about 500 and 800 mm
digitaria decumbens stent
Digitaria decumbens Stent.
  • Local name:

Pangola grass

  • Native:

South Africa

African Tropics

  • A stoloniferous perennial
  • Having the culms much branched, usually decumbent, and often rooting from the lower nodes
  • Height around 100 cm
  • Pangola grass will grow over a wide range of soils on wet sands or heavy clays and at low fertility levels.
  • It will survive droughts fairly well if established, but will not be productive
  • Once pangola grass is established it spreads very rapidly by stolons.
  • . It does not produce viable seeds.
eleusine indica l g aertn
Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.
  • Local name:

Rumput lulangan

Rumput jukut

Rumput jampang

  • Perennial grass, 30-60 cm tall
  • It has a particularly tough root system and is hard to pull out
  • Distribution: tropical and subtropical regions
  • It can be made into coarse hay and silage
hypharrhenia rufa n ees s tapf
Hypharrhenia rufa (Nees) Stapf.
  • Synonim:

Trachypogon rufus Nees;

Andropogon rufus (Nees) Kunth

(Wagner et al.1999)

  • Local name:

Rumput jaragua

  • Native:




  • It survives well into drought
  • Good ­ on retentive soils withstands a dry season of six months


  • A very variable perennial from 60-240 cm high
  • The flowering stems have little leaf
leersia hexandra swartz
Leersia hexandra Swartz.
  • Local name:

Rumput Benta

Jukut lambeta

Rico grass



  • Distribution: throughout the tropics and subtropics.
  • It survives well into drought until the swamps dry out
  • Stoloniferous perennial
  • It makes quite good hay but is difficult to harvest from swamps and is usually cut when swamps dry out
melinis minutiflora beauv
Melinis minutiflora Beauv.
  • Synonim:

Melinis tenuinervis StapfPanicum melinis Trin.Panicum minutiflorum (P. Beauv.) Raspail

  • Local name:

Rumput Molasses

  • Native:

African Tropics

  • Tufted perennial up to 150 cm high, often sticky, with a characteristic odour of molasses or cumin.
  • fertile culms erect or geniculatelyascending
  • Inflorescence a panicle 10-30 cm long, with racemes initially appressed, spreading to present a pale pink to purple plume effect at anthesis
  • Seedling vigour: Excellent. It establishes quickly
  • It needs moderate to high rainfall in excess of 750 mm. The normal range is 960 to 1 706 mm (Russell & Webb, 1976).
  • Relatively drought-hardy over a dry season of four to five months.
  • It is tolerant to soils of fairly low fertility.
  • When mature it will burn so fiercely that its own seeds and roots are killed
panicum maximum jacc
Panicum maximum Jacc.
  • Synonim:

Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq.) B.K. Simon & S.W.L. JacobsUrochloa maxima (Jacq.) R.D.WebsterPanicum hirsutissimumSteud

  • Local name:

Rumput Benggala

Rumput Guinea

  • Native:


Indian Ocean


  • A tufted perennial, often with a shortly creeping rhizome, variable 60-200 cm high
  • panicle 12- 40 cm long, open spikelets 3-3.5 mm long, obtuse, mostly purple red, glumes unequal, the lower one being one-third to one-fourth as long as the spikelet
  • It will grow on a large range of soils, but produces poor stands on infertile types.
  • It is well adapted to sloping, cleared land in rain forest areas where it will support heavy stocking. It will tolerate acid conditions if drainage is good.
  • It does not tolerate waterlogging
  • It will not tolerate heavy frosts, but recovers from light frosts with the return of warm weather
panicum repens l
Panicum repens L.
  • Local name:

Rumput torpedo

  • Native:

Tropical and North Africa

Mediterranean (sometimes said to be native to Asia).

  • A rhizomatous, creeping perennial, rooting at the base, 30-90 cm tall
  • It is extremely palatable and nutritious over a long growing season, but at the mature stage the old leaves tend to become tough (Thorp, 1979) and are neglected by stock
  • It tolerates drought, as the rhizomes remain alive in long dry periods
  • Generally found on sandy soils, but some strains grow on heavy clay. The soils are always wet and of alluvial origin
  • Panicum repens grows well even after several days in standing water. It is frequent on lake edges, edges of dams and in swamps throughout the tropics (Sayer & Lavieren, 1975).
  • Tolerance to salinity: Very good
paspalum plicatulum michx
Paspalum plicatulum Michx.
  • Local name:

Rumput plicatulum

  • Native:

Guatemala, Venezuela

  • Tufted perennial, with open, tussocky habit, up to 1.2 m high
  • Leaves usually about 40 cm long, 10 mm wide, folded at the base, pilose on the upper surface at base near margins, glabrous toward the top; leaf-sheaths glabrous, ligule 1.5 mm long.
  • Rainfall requirements: At least 760 mm, preferably more than 1 000 mm up to 2 036 mm a year (Russell & Webb, 1976).
  • It is tolerant of a wide range of soils, including soils of low fertility which are too poor
  • It grows well on strongly acid to neutral, poorly drained clay loams and on excessively drained deep sandy soils (Leithead, Yarlett & Shiflet, 1971)
paspalum conjugatum bergius
Paspalum conjugatum Bergius.
  • Local name:

Buffalo grass

Jampang pahit

  • Native:

American tropics

  • A vigorous, creeping perennial with long stolons, rooting at nodes, with culms ascending to erect, 40-80(-100) cm tall, branching, solid, slightly compressed.
  • It is used as a forage for grazing or in cut-and-carry systems, and is rated as a very important natural pasture grass in coconut plantations.
  • The palatability declines rapidly after flowering
  • It is stated that only the young stage of the grass is suitable for grazing since the fruits tend to stick in the throats of livestock and choke them
  • It is adapted to a wide range of soils
  • It grows from near sea-level up to 1700 m altitude in open to moderately shaded places.
  • It is adapted to humid climates.
paspalum dilatatum poir
Paspalum dilatatum Poir.
  • Synonim:

Digitaria dilatata (Poir.) H.J. Coste

Paspalum eriophorum Schult.Paspalum lanatum Spreng.Paspalum ovatum Nees ex Trin.Paspalum ovatum var. grandiflorum NeesPaspalum pedunculare J. PreslPaspalum platense Spreng. Paspalum selloi Spreng. ex NeesPaspalum velutinum Trin. ex Nees

  • Local name:

Rumput australi


humid subtropics of southern Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay

  • A leafy, tufted perennial with clustered stems arising from shortly creeping rhizomes; culms to 1 m; inflorescence of 3-5 racemes; spikelets ovate, about 3 mm long, fringed with silky hairs (Henty, 1969).
  • It requires a minimum of about 750 mm of annual rainfall; does best in a rainfall of about 1 250 mm, and in irrigated pastures. Maximum recorded, 1 650 mm (Russell & Webb, 1976)
  • The underground root-stock gives it considerable drought tolerance once it is established
  • It grows best in heavy, moist, fertile, alluvial and basaltic clay soils
pennisetum purpureum scumach
Pennisetum purpureum Scumach.
  • Synonim:

Pennisetum benthamii Steud

  • Local name:

Rumput gajah

Napier Grass

  • Native:


  • A robust perennial with a vigorous root system, sometimes stoloniferous with a creeping rhizome.
  • Culms usually 180-360 cm high, branched upwards. Leaf-sheaths glabrous or with tubercle-based hairs; leaf-blades 20-40 mm wide, margins thickened and shiny.
  • Inflorescence a bristly false spike up to 30 cm long, dense, usually yellow-brown in colour, more rarely purplish (Chippendall, 1955).
  • Grows on a wide range of soil types provided fertility is adequate. 
  • Grows best in deep, well-drained friable loams with a pH of 4.5-8.2 (mean 6.2). 
  • No readily available data on tolerance of salinity or high levels of Al and Mn.
  • It survives drought quite well when established because of its deep root system.
setaria sphacelata s chumach m b m oss
Setaria sphacelata (Schumach.) M.B. Moss
  • Synonim:

Setaria ancepsStapf.

  • Local name:

Rumput setaria

  • Native:


  • Perennial tussock to 2 m tall, with short rhizomes. 
  • Leaves bluish grey-green, leaf blades soft, glabrous, to 50 cm long and up to about 1 cm wide. 
  • Lower parts of culms and the basal leaf-sheaths flattened. 
  • Inflorescence a tightly contracted panicle producing a false spike.
  • Most commonly found on soils with texture ranging from sand to clay loam and light clay, but will grow on heavy clay. 
  • Survives low fertility conditions but responds to improved fertility. 
  • Not well adapted to alkaline or very acid soils, most wild collections coming from soils of pH 5.5-6.5. 
  • Generally low salt tolerance
  • 'Kazungula' is the most tolerant of poor sandy and stony soils. 'Nandi' and 'Narok' prefer medium-textured, fertile soils.
sorghum sudanense
Sorghum sudanense
  • Local name:

Rumput Sudan

  • Native:

Sudan, Africa

  • slender annual with leafy stems up to 3 m high that grows on a variety of soils in areas with 500-900 mm of rain annually.
  • Drought resistant. Cultivated primarily for hay or as a pioneer grass.
  • With good fertility, yields two to five cuttings of very palatable fodder.
  • May contain prussic acid when green
euchlaena mexicana schrad
Euchlaena mexicana Schrad.
  • Synonim:

Zeamays L. subsp. mexicana (Schrad.) H. H. Iltis

  • Local name:


Rumput Mexico

  • Native:

Central America


urochloa mosambicencis h ack dandy
Urochloa mosambicencis (Hack.) Dandy
  • Synonim:

Brachiaria stolonifera Gooss.Echinochloa notabile (Hook. f.) Rhind.Panicum mosambicense Hack.Urochloa pullulans Stapf, nom. illeg.Urochloa stolonifera (Gooss.) Chippind.

  • Local name:

Rumput Sabi

  • Native:


  • A perennial, variable in size and habit (Burt et al., 1980)
  • sometimes stoloniferous or with a creeping rhizome.
  • Culms 120 cm or more high, sometimes rooting and branched from the lower nodes.
  • It is drought enduring.
  • It will grow in a wide range of soils, from clay loams to sands, but appears to be more suitable for lighter soils with relatively high fertility.
  • It can tolerate both acid and alkaline soils.
  • Tolerant of light shade.