A Look at Waste-to-energy: Past, Present & Future - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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A Look at Waste-to-energy: Past, Present & Future

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  1. Integrated Waste Services Association A Look at Waste-to-energy: Past, Present & Future Maria Zannes Integrated waste services association Washington, D.C. Zanneswte@aol.Com

  2. Waste-to-energy • WTE facilities combust solid wastes to reduce their volume, produce energy, and recover materials • WTE serves two public needs: • Environmentally sound, reliable solid waste disposal • Clean renewable power

  3. Typical Large Mass Burn Facility Stack Turbine/Generator (Not shown) Boiler Flue Gas Cleaning Equipment Feed Hopper Crane Tipping Hall Refuse Bunker FD Fan Grate Ash Handling Equipment ID Fan

  4. Air Pollution Control Features Acid Gas Scrubbers High-temperature Combustion Tall Stack Odors Burned in Boilers Urea Injection* Enclosed Unloading and Storage Areas Baghouse or ESP Manual Stack Tests Environmental Management System Carbon Injection* Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS) Ash Wetted * Some Plants

  5. Trash Disposal • Percentage of U.S. Waste managed: 13% • Annual disposal capacity: 28.5 million tons • People served: 36 million • States with WTE plants: 27


  6. Energy Generation • Homes served: 2 + million • Total power generated: 2500 MW • Total steam exported: 2.6 million lbs/hr • Percentage of total national generation: 0.3%

  7. Waste-to-energy Technologies

  8. Modernization of WTE • 1985 – 1995: technology upgrades • Older WTE and incinerators closed • New larger WTE built 1998 – 2005 +: MACT retrofits • EPA “maximum achievable control technology” • $1 billion industry & community investment • High-emitting plants either retrofit or closed • Small units compliance 2005 • Large unit MACT revisions 2006

  9. Modern WTE Technology State-of-the-art pollution control design and equipment • Combustion control • Acid gas scrubbers • Fabric filters / esps • NOx control • Activated carbon • Continuous monitoring • Stack tests

  10. Environmental Aspects of WTE • Renewable energy / fuel diversity • Air emissions • Climate change • Land use • Ash management • Recycling Hempstead

  11. Renewable Energy WTE is sustainable, “home-grown” power • Waste is ~ 70% biomass • WTE is recognized as renewable under federal and 16 state laws • WTE contributes to fuel diversity • WTE plants are located near power users • WTE reduces transportation fuel use

  12. Air Emissions Nationwide WTE facility emissions have been dramatically reduced Source: Environmental Protection Agency, 2002

  13. Air Emissions: Dioxins WTE emissions now represent less than 1% of known dioxin inventory

  14. Air Emissions: Mercury WTE now represents less than 3% of U.S. man-made mercury emissions

  15. Climate Change WTE reduces the emission of Greenhouse Gases • Eliminates methane emissions from garbage in landfills • Offsets fossil fuel energy with biomass Statistics: • One ton of greenhouse gases emitted by WTE offsets two tons that would have been emitted by landfills and power plants • WTE plants reduce greenhouse gases by an amount equal to those emitted from 9 million automobiles Source: greenhouse gas equivalencies calculator

  16. Land Use WTE reduces landfilled waste volumes by 90% 0.1 CY Landfill 1 CY

  17. Ash Management Ash is safe for landfilling and suitable for many reuse applications • WTE ash is stable and inert • Normally handled in combined form (bottom & fly) • Moisture reduces fugitive emissions • Compacts and hardens in landfills • RCRA non-hazardous • Demonstrated low metals leaching

  18. Ash Management - Reuse • Reuse in 2004: nearly 3 million tons • Types of reuse: • Landfill cover and roadways • Landfill closure • Mine reclamation and brownfields • Road asphalt and concrete construction projects

  19. Recycling WTE and recycling do not compete; they are complementary parts of an integrated waste management program Recycling rate of communities with WTE is 35% vs. 30% in Non-wte communities • On-site ferrous recovery: 700,000 tons/yr • On-site non-ferrous metals and other materials: 100,000 tons/yr • Ash reuse: 2,970,000 tons/yr

  20. Safety & Health • WTE industry historically reports lower OSHA recordable incidents than similar industries • 20 WTE plants have achieved OSHA voluntary protection program status

  21. Governmental Authorities Recognize WTE’s Benefits: “Upgrading of the emission control systems oflarge combustors to Exceed the requirements of the clean air act section 129 standards is an impressive accomplishment. The completion of retrofits of the large combustion units enables us to continue to rely on municipal solid waste as a clean, reliable, renewable source of energy. With the capacity to handle approximately 15 percent of the waste generated in the US, these plants produce 2800 megawatts of electricity with less environmental impact than almost any other source of electricity.” -US environmental protection agency, february, 2003 “We at the office of energy efficiency and renewable energy (EERE) also recognize MSW as a renewable energy resource and include it in our tracking of progress toward achieving the federal government’s renewable energy goal, established by executive order 13123.” -Department of energy, april, 2003

  22. WTE Industry - 1980’s • Solid waste regulations landfill closures, rising tip fees • Communities seeking long-term solid waste solution • PURPA – favorable energy contracts • Financial drivers – tax credits, accelerated depreciation New Plants

  23. DOE Support for Waste-to-Energy Technology • Ash studies and reuse • Alternative Waste-to-Energy Technologies Analysis • Advanced Pollution Control Research • Comparative Energy, Economic & Environmental Analysis of Technologies and Disposal Methods • Transfer of Technology & Information

  24. DOE Support for Waste-to-Energy Technology • 1975: Program originated as urban waste in ERDA / Funding: $40,000 • 1977: DOE formed from ERDA; name changes to Energy From Municipal Waste (EMW) / Funding: $4,650,000 • 1981: Significant increase in authority / Funding: $231,000,000 • 1985: EMW combined with Biomass Energy Technologies

  25. DOE support for Waste-to-Energy Technology • 1989: EMW selected as one of 11 DOE renewable energy initiatives / Funding (1986-89): $ 11,900,000 • 1990: EMW refocuses on near term combustion technologies / Funding: $2,300,000 • 1991: Last funding request as a portion of the Biomass Energy Technologies Division / Funding: $2,800,000

  26. Waste-to-energy Plant Start-ups 53 Number of Plants 25 10 4 5 1

  27. WTE Industry - 1990’s • Falling tip fees – landfill competition/long haul • Falling energy prices • Energy deregulation – uncertainties • MACT investment • Tax credits & DOE Program Funding End Industry Consolidation

  28. Renewed Partnership with NREL & Waste-to-Energy • Environmental & Economic Analysis of Renewable Combustion Technologies • Advanced Pollution Control Research for nitrogen oxides reduction • Cooperative research with Columbia University’s Waste-to-Energy Research & Technology Council • Research for mitigation of corrosion

  29. WTE Industry - 2000’s • Proven track record – reliability, environmental • Renewable status / GHG credits • Federal tax credits • Expiring long-term contracts • Retiring debt • Good locations of existing plants • RENEWED NREL PARTNERSHIP ??? Existing plants improve operations New & Expansion opportunities