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Identify 3 early sources of law.

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  1. Identify 3 early sources of law. • Hammurabi’s Code, The 12 Tables from Rome, the 10 Commandments

  2. Who was the Father of Greek Philosophy? What method did he use to find truth? • Socrates, question and question to find truth

  3. How did Aristotle believe you could find the best government? • Evaluating existing governments

  4. Who took Greek ideas and spread them throughout the Middle East and Northern Africa? • Alexander the Great

  5. What two things allowed for a dramatic change in population growth between 1000-1300. • more peaceful conditions (less war) and better agriculture

  6. What was the purpose of the Crusades? Who usually went on them? • Retake the Holy Land from the “infidel”, noblemen & knights looking for glory and salvation

  7. Middle Age universities were dedicated to what school of thought? • scholasticism

  8. What two things did peasants get in exchange for giving up their freedom to the lord of the manor? • Protection and the use of land

  9. Identify at least three of the “obligations” placed on peasants. • Pay a portion of crop to lord, rent pastureland, tithes to the church, portion of catch to the lord

  10. Identify three ways the lords exercised control over their peasants. • Permission to leave, permission to marry, lords run local courts, lords control crafts and trades for their peasants

  11. What two areas did scholasticism attempt to reconcile? • Faith (xianity) and reason (Aristotle)

  12. Who was the most well known scholastic? What was his most famous work? • Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica

  13. Name two examples of church corruption during the Middle Ages. • simony, legal exemptions, tax exemptions, clerical infidelity, misuse of church funds

  14. Name 2 of the main ways that the Black Death impacted Europe. • decreased supply of labor, increased power of poor, decreased demand for land, decreased power of nobility

  15. Identify the four basic levels of the church hierarchy. • Pope - Cardinal - Bishop - Priest

  16. What was a vassal expected to give loyally in exchange for his fief? • military service

  17. Name two benefits the serf received in the manorial system. • protection from outside threat, food during shortages, legal protection

  18. How did France ultimately benefit from the 100 Years War? • regained much lost territory

  19. Who was the local legal authority in the feudal system? • the lord (vassal)

  20. Name Michelangelo’s most famous painting & sculpture. • Sistene Chapel & David

  21. Who wrote “The Prince” and hoped that a strong Italian ruler would come from the Medicis? What quality did he value? • Machiavelli, virtú

  22. How did Renaissance Art differ from art from the Middle Ages? • realism, accurate anatomy, secular patronage

  23. What economic developments allowed for secular patronage of the arts? • increased trade & banking

  24. Who was the father of Humanism? What kind of activity did he inspire? • Petrarch, Examination of the classics, and writing related to them

  25. List two reasons the church feared the humanists. • Self-reliance, outside interpretations, authorities other than God

  26. What invention caused literacy to boom and made it much easier for thinkers to spread their ideas? Roughly when was it invented? • printing press, late 1400’s

  27. Name the work and author that describe an ideal society that will never exist. • Utopia, Thomas More

  28. Identify the two major northern humanists. • More & Erasmus

  29. What was Erasmus’ philosophy a combination of? • Christian and classical beliefs

  30. Identify two classical features that were prominent in Ren. Architecture. • Domes, columns, roman arches, ornamentation, integrated supports

  31. How was the subject matter of the Northern Ren. a departure from the High Ren? • Gothic, supernatural

  32. How did members of the Schmalkaldic League and Henry VIII benefit from the Reformation Economically? • Took over Church lands & property

  33. Who said: “We are all equal in the eyes of God, members of the Priesthood of all Believers”? • Luther

  34. What conclusion pushed Luther to write the 95 Theses? • That man is saved through Faith and not works or indulgences

  35. Which theologian believed people were predestined for salvation? • Calvin

  36. What tool did Calvin use to create his “New Jerusalem”? • Strict moral code (spread through sermons and Catechism)

  37. List three components of Calvin’s moral code. • No drinking, no dancing, no plays, religious music & psalm reading in taverns

  38. What was the main reason Henry VIII started the English Reformation? • Wanted an annulment from Catharine, desired control over church structure & resources

  39. How was the Anglican Church that Henry VIII created different from Roman Catholicism? • It was different organizationally because the king was in charge, it was not different theologically

  40. Under which monarch did England become truly Protestant (theologically)? • Edward VI

  41. Which English monarch attempted to reinstate Roman Catholicism? Was she successful? • Mary I, no she was not

  42. What three religious groups did Elizabeth I face when she came to the throne? What did she recognize as the official religion of England? • RCs, Anglicans, & Puritans; Anglicanism (Church of England)

  43. Identify two key components of the Roman Catholic Counter Reformation. • Founding new orders (like the Jesuits), the Inquisition, emphasis on discipline, the Index of Forbidden Books

  44. What type of art reflected the spirit of the Counter Reformation? What did the RC church hope it would do? • Baroque, bring people back to the faith

  45. What is Baroque Art designed to do? • Get an emotional response/reaction

  46. What two groups were fighting each other in the French Religious conflict? • The Huguenots and the Catholic League

  47. How did Henry of Navarre bring a close to conflict in France? • converting to RC & issuing the Edict of Nantes which protected the Huguenots

  48. Why did Phillip II of Spain want to keep control of the Netherlands? • He wanted to keep them Catholic and he needed the tax $$$

  49. Which protestant group wanted to rid the Anglican Church of all Catholic practices and structures? • Puritans

  50. Who wanted Mary Queen of Scots to be Queen of England? Why was she executed? • Phillip II and other RCs, Plotting to kill Elizabeth I