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Slide 1 Before we begin…P-E-G-AS

Slide 1 Before we begin…P-E-G-AS. Political : Who controls what? What type of government is there? Anything to do with laws or war. Economic : What type of economy? How do people make a living? Geography : Where is it? Is the land mountainous? Desert? Oceanic?

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Slide 1 Before we begin…P-E-G-AS

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  1. Slide 1Before we begin…P-E-G-AS • Political: Who controls what? What type of government is there? Anything to do with laws or war. • Economic: What type of economy? How do people make a living? • Geography: Where is it? Is the land mountainous? Desert? Oceanic? • Advances/Social: Religious, intellectual, artistic

  2. Slide 2 Ancient River Valley Civilizations

  3. Slide 3 Early River Valley Civilizations

  4. Slide 4 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA • Oldest known civilization • Cradle of Human Civilization • Old Testament • Nebuchadnezzar • Ziggurat (right) • Hanging gardens

  5. Slide 5 Geography • This civilization rose in the valleys between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. • Some say this Fertile Crescent was the real Garden of Eden. • It has few natural barriers.

  6. Slide 6 In what modern day country was the Fertile Crescent?

  7. Slide 7 Iraq

  8. Slide 8 Ur, the capital city of Mesopotamia

  9. Slide 9 Sumerians • The Sumerians invented writing called cuneiform. • Babylonians wrote using this “wedge-shaped” writing on clay tablets. • Number system based on 60. • 12 month calendar • wheel, plow , sailboat

  10. Slide 10 More cuneiform writing

  11. Slide 11 Ancient Mesopotamia Social Classes Kings, Priests, Gov’t officials Artisans, merchants, farmers, and fishers Enslaved people

  12. Slide 12 More ziggurats

  13. Slide 13 Hanging Gardens of Babylonia

  14. Slide 14 Babylon under King Nebuchadnezzar II. Herodotus (historian in 450 B.C.) was quoted as saying the following: "In addition to its size, Babylon surpasses in splendor any city in the known world." Outer walls were 56 miles in length, 80 feet thick and 320 feet high. Wide enough to allow a four-horse chariot to turn. Inside the walls were fortresses and temples containing immense statues of solid gold. Rising above the city was the famous Tower of Babel, a temple to the god Marduk, that seemed to reach to the heavens

  15. Slide 15 Another painting of the hanging gardens with Tower of Babel in back

  16. Slide 16 Economic: Trade and Farming • Traditional Economy • Sumerians (Mesopotamians) were known to trade with the Egyptians and the Indus Valley civilizations. • In later years, these trade routes became Silk Road.

  17. Slide 17 Sumerians Invented The Wheel • The wheel was invented by 6000 BC • It helped military, farming and trade. • At right, this is made of wood.

  18. Slide 18 Political: Mesopotamian Law • Code of Hammurabi • “eye for an eye tooth for a tooth”

  19. Slide 20 ANCIENT EGYPT • Nile River • Mummies • Pharaohs • Rameses • King Tutankhamen • Hieroglyphics

  20. Slide 21 Egyptian Civilization • Egyptian civilization arose after Mesopotamia. • Geography: It was centered around the Nile River.

  21. The Nile River

  22. Slide 21 Nile River Provided fish Supported plants and animals Two rivers, Blue Nile and White Nile, join to make the Nile River. World’s longest river Flows south to north Floods watered the land and provided fertile soils for crops to grow.

  23. Slide 22 The Sahara Desert. Largest desert in the world. Egypt is naturally protected from enemies because it was surrounded by deserts, rivers, deltas, and cataracts (rapids).

  24. Slide 23 Pyramids • Pyramids were tombs for the kings. • The most famous are the Giza pyramids (shown to left). • These were built in 3500 B.C.E. • How old are they?

  25. Slide 24 Political: Egyptian Pharaohs • Egyptians were led by Pharaohs, who were priest-kings. • The most famous pharaoh is King Tut. • Using computers, this image was reconstructed using his remains. • Eventually, Egypt was divided into 2 kingdoms (Upper and Lower).

  26. Tutankhamun

  27. Tutankhamen on the throne

  28. AbuSimbel was built by Ramseses II

  29. Slide 25 Egypt’s Religion They believed in many gods and goddesses and in life after death for the pharaohs. Hapi – main god Isis – main goddess Book of the Dead

  30. Slide 26 Mummies • Egyptians who could afford to do so would have themselves mummified. • They believed in a better afterlife if their body was preserved.

  31. Slide 27 Mummification Process Took out all of the internal organs, except the heart because it was believed to be the intelligence and emotion of the person. Organs were put in canopic jars, that were put in the tomb with the mummy. Brain was taken out through the nose because it had no significant value. The body was packed and covered with natron (a salty drying agent). Then the body was left for 40-50 days. 

  32. Mummies

  33. Slide 28 Egyptians wrote in hieroglyphics Made up of sound and picture symbols Only scribes (men) were taught to write

  34. Hieroglyphics

  35. Slide 29 What did Egyptians write on? • Papyrus • Also used to make baskets, sandals and river rafts

  36. The Great Sphinx is located on the Giza plateau, about six miles west of Cairo.

  37. Slide 30 Egyptian Social Classes

  38. Slide 31 Egyptian Economy • Although Egypt looks really sophisticated, the economy is a traditional economy based on farming and trade. • Egyptians traded up and down the Nile, with Mesopotamians and sometimes with the Indus Valley (in Pakistan)

  39. Indus Valley Civilization

  40. Slide 33 The Land of India • Subcontinent • Himalaya Mountains • Five nations of today: India, Pakistan in the NW, Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh in NE

  41. Slide 34 Fertile River Valleys • 2 river valleys: Ganges and Indus • South is dry and hilly (Deccan Plateau) • Eastern and Western coasts are lush, fertile plains. • Monsoons • Winter – cold, dry air from mts • Summer – warm, wet air from the Arabian Sea

  42. Slide 35 Indus River Valley • This civilization is still mysterious. • The writing has not been translated.

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