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男性生殖系统. the male reproductive system. 杨志文. 组成: 睾丸 * 、 生殖管道 、 附属腺 、外生殖器. the male reproductive system. testis and epididymis. testis. 睾丸 ( testis ). function : 产生 精子 ;分泌 雄激素. 间质 testicular interstitium : 间质细胞( Leydig cell ) 1. 鞘膜脏层 ( visceral layer of tunica vaginalis )

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slide1

男性生殖系统

the male reproductive system

杨志文

slide5

睾丸(testis)

function:产生精子;分泌雄激素

间质testicular interstitium:间质细胞(Leydig cell)

1.鞘膜脏层(visceral layer of tunica vaginalis)

2.白膜(tunica albuginea)

睾丸纵隔(mediastinum testis)

睾丸小隔(septulum testis)

3.血管膜(tunica vasculosa)(LCT & Cap.)

实质parenchyma:睾丸小叶(testicular lobule)

生精小管(seminiferous tubule)

直精小管(tubulus rectus)

睾丸网(rete testis)

General structure

睾丸被膜

testicular capsule

slide8

seminiferous tubule

生精上皮(spermatogenic epithelium)*

生精细胞(spermatogenic cell)*

精原细胞(spermatogonium)

初级精母细胞(primary spermatocyte)

次级精母细胞(secondary spermatocyte)

精子细胞(spermatid)

精子(spermatozoon)

支持细胞(sustentacular cell)*

basement membrane:明显

collagenous fiber

类肌细胞(myoid cell)

* 精子发生

(spermatogenesis)

扁平梭形,结构和功能与平滑肌细胞相似,收缩有助于精子进入生殖管道。

slide9

Spermatogenic cell & Spermatogenesis

1. At puberty

2. FSH stimulating

3. Spermatogenic cells differentiate to spermatozoa

Spermatogenesis: The process from spermatogonia to spermatozoa.

slide11

spermatogonium

紧贴生精上皮基膜,圆形、椭圆形,d= 12 µm

Type A暗型(Ad)(stem cell)→nAd→Ad

亮型(Ap)

Type B

mitosis

{ 46,XY(2n DNA)}

primary spermatocyte

位于精原细胞的近腔侧,细胞圆形,d = 18µm,核大而圆,可见分裂相。分裂前期历时较长(约 22 d),生精小管切片中常见。

duplicate DNA { 46,XY(4n DNA)}

firstmeiosis

2 个次级精母细胞 { 23,X或23,Y(2n DNA)}

slide13

secondary spermatocyte

位于初级精母细胞的近腔侧,细胞圆形,d = 12 µm,核圆,染色较深。存在时间短,不易见到。

no DNA synthesis

{ 23,X或23,Y(2n DNA)}

secondary meiosis

2 个精子细胞 {23,X或23,Y(1nDNA)}

slide14

成熟分裂:又称减数分裂(meiosis)

1、成熟分裂后,生殖细胞由二倍体→单倍体。

2、第一次成熟分裂前期,同源染色体联会、交叉,

进行遗传基因的交换。

slide15

spermatid

位置靠近管腔,细胞圆形,d = 8 µm,核大而圆,染色质致密。

精子形成(spermiogenesis):精子细胞→精子的过程。

slide17

spermiogenesis

A complex process that a round spermatid transforms into a tadpole-like spermatozoon(no further division occurs).

Spermiogenesis includes formation of the acrosome, condensation and elongation of the nucleus, development of the flagellum, formation of mitochondrial sheath, and the loss of much of the cytoplasm.

slide18

spermiogenesis

1、核浓缩、延长→精子头部(head)

2、Golgi complex→顶体泡(acrosomal vesicle)

→顶体(acrosome)

3、centrioles→轴丝(axoneme)→尾部(tail, 鞭毛 flagellum)

4、mitochondrion→ mitochondrial sheath

5、多余胞质脱落→残余体(residual cytoplasm)

6、胞膜→精子质膜

slide25

Spermatozoon:60 µm long

Head: condensation and elongation of nucleus

acrosome covers 2/3 of the nucleus anteriorly and

contains hydrolytic enzyme for fertilization

尾部(tail or flagellum)---for motility

颈段(neck):短,中心粒→轴丝

中段(middle piece):轴丝 + 9根纵行外周致密纤维+ 线

粒体鞘(provide energy)

主段(principal piece):最长,轴丝 +9根外周致密纤维+

纤维鞘(fibrous sheath)(调整精子尾摆动平面)

末段(end piece):轴丝

slide28

spermatogenesis

定义:精原细胞→精子(64天)

including3phases:

(1)精原细胞增生---mitosis

Ad→Ap→B→初级精母细胞(44+XY,4nDNA)

(2)精母细胞减数分裂

meiosisⅠ→22+X 和22+Y, 2nDNA;

meiosis Ⅱ→22+X 和22+Y, 1nDNA

(3)精子形成

无分裂,变态→精子(22+X 和22+Y, 1nDNA)

slide30

sustentacular cell(Sertoli 细胞)

呈不规则高锥体形,底部宽大、紧贴基膜,顶部伸达管腔,侧面和顶面嵌有各级生精细胞。核不规则,异染色质少,着色浅,核仁明显。

slide31

sustentacular cell(Sertoli cell)

EM:sER、Golgi、rER、线粒体、溶酶体、微管、微丝。

slide32

sustentacular cell(Sertoli cell)

相邻支持细胞侧面近基部的胞膜形成紧密连接。

1.基底室

(basal compartment)

2.近腔室

(abluminal compartment)

slide34

sustentacular cell(Sertoli细胞)

血-睾屏障(blood-testis barrier):生精小管与血液之间

组成:有孔毛细血管内皮及其基膜

结缔组织

生精上皮基膜

支持细胞紧密连接

作用:1、阻止某些物质进出生精上皮,形成并维持

有利于精子发生的微环境

2、防止精子抗原物质逸出到生精小管外而发

生自体免疫反应

slide35

sustentacular cell(Sertoli cell)

function

1. support, protect, & nourish spermatogenic cells

2. phagocytize & digest the residual bodies

3. secrete fluid to help the sperm moving

4. synthesize & secrete ABP(雄激素结合蛋白)←FSH

(Androgen Binding Protein)

ABP combines androgen in seminiferous tubule to

stimulate spermatogenesis

slide36

sustentacular cell(Sertoli cell)

function

5. secrete inhibin(抑制素)and activin(激活素)

suppresses synthesis and release of FSH in the

anterior pituitary gland

6. secrete the antimüllerian hormone(抗中肾旁管激素)

which promotes regression of the müllerian

( paramesonephric ) duct during embryonic development

7. tight junction---blood-testis barrier

8. gap junction---provide ionic and chemical coupling of the

cells

slide37

tubulus rectus and rete testis

tubulus rectus:生精小管近睾丸纵隔处变成短而细的直行管道,

管壁上皮为单层立方或矮柱状,无生精细胞。

rete testis:直精小管进入睾丸纵隔内分支吻合成网状的管道,

由单层立方上皮组成,管腔大而不规则。

精子

slide40

睾丸间质(testicular interstitium)

生精小管之间的疏松结缔组织,富含血管和淋巴管。

睾丸间质细胞( testicular interstitial cell)(Leydig细胞)

位于生精小管之间,三五成群分布,体积较大,圆形或多边形,核圆居中,核仁明显,胞质嗜酸性,具有分泌类固醇激素细胞的特点。

LH(ICSH)

功能:分泌雄激素(androgen)

1、促进精子发生

2、促进男性生殖器官的发育与分化

3、维持男性第二性征和性功能

slide42

睾丸功能的内分泌调节

(-)

(-)

下丘脑

GnRH

腺垂体远侧部

FSH LH(ICSH)

↓ ↓

支持细胞 间质细胞

抑制素激活素ABP雄激素

(-)

(-)

与抑制素相反

(+)精子发生

slide44

genital ducts

transport and nourish the sperm

附睾(epididymis):暂存、营养精子,促进精子成熟

head→ 输出小管(efferent duct)

body

tail

输精管(ductus deferens)

射精管(ejaculatory duct)

尿道(urethra)

附睾管

(epididymal duct)

slide46

epididymis

efferent duct:管腔不规则,单层纤毛柱状上皮

高柱状纤毛细胞:分泌功能、游离面纤毛→推动精子移动

低柱状无纤毛细胞:胞质中含大量溶酶体及吞饮小泡

——消化、吸收腔内物质

epididymal duct:管腔规则,腔内充满精子和分泌物

假复层静纤毛(stereo cilium)柱状上皮---吸收、分泌

主细胞、基细胞、顶细胞、窄细胞、亮细胞、晕细胞

基膜

薄层平滑肌:收缩有助于精子移动

疏松结缔组织:富含血管

共同点:

slide47

精子在附睾内停留8-17天,获得运动能力,达到功能上成熟。精子在附睾内停留8-17天,获得运动能力,达到功能上成熟。

1、雄激素

2、附睾上皮细胞:分泌肉毒碱、甘油磷酸胆碱

和唾液酸等。

3、血-附睾屏障(blood-epididymis barrier)

以主细胞近腔面的紧密连接为主要结构

(1) 保护成熟中的精子不受外界的干扰

(2) 防止精子抗原物质逸出附睾管外而引发自

身免疫反应。

slide48

ductus deferens

为壁厚腔小的肌性管道

mucosa:

上皮:假复层柱状(静纤毛)

固有层

muscular layer:

内纵、中环、外纵

射精时,肌层强力收缩,

将精子快速排出

adventitia:LCT

slide49

附属腺(accessory genital glands)

附属腺和生殖管道的分泌物→精浆

精浆+ 精子→精液(semen)

每次射精射出3~5ml精液,含1亿~ 2亿个精子/ml精液

若< 400万个精子/ml 精液

精液量< 1ml → 男性不育

精子活力低下

前列腺(prostate)

精囊(seminal vesicle)

尿道球腺(bulbourethral gland)

slide50

prostate

呈栗形,环绕于尿道起始段。

腺实质:

黏膜腺(mucosal glands)

黏膜下腺(submucosal glands)

主腺(main glands)

slide52

prostate

Consist of compound glands around the urethra, CT and smooth muscles

间质:结缔组织被膜:富含弹性纤维和平滑肌

实质:腺泡:Glandular epithelium is columnar, cuboidal

or pseudostratified.

前列腺凝固体(prostatic concretion):腔内分

泌物浓缩形成的圆形嗜酸性板层状小体,随年

龄的增长而增多,甚至钙化为前列腺结石。

导管

slide53

prostate

青春期开始,在雄激素作用下分泌稀薄的乳白色液体,富含酸性磷酸酶、纤维蛋白溶酶、柠檬酸、锌等。老年时的前列腺肥大,是粘膜腺和粘膜下腺增生所致。

Benign hypertrophy of prostate can lead to obstruction of the urethra.

Prostate cancer developes in main glands

slide55

Summary

The male reproductive system is composed of the testes, genital ducts, accessory glands and penis.

The testis is a dual-function gland, since functionally it is both exocrine and endocrine. Its exocrine product is chiefly the sex cells or gametes ( sperm ), and thus the testis may be refered to as a cytogenic gland. Its endocrine product is the male sex hormone, testosterone, which stimulates the accessory male sexual organs and causes the development of the masculine extragenital sex characteristics.

slide56

Summary

The genital ducts include the epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory ducts and urethra, which store and conduct the sperm.

The accessory glands, i.g. the seminal vesicles, prostate and bulbourethral glands, supply their secretions which, together with the sperm, form the semen. The penis is a copulative organ.