Reconciliation between BFO and DOLCE leads to YATO ー On quality description ー - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Reconciliation between BFO and DOLCE leads to YATO ー On quality description ー

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  1. Reconciliation betweenBFO and DOLCE leads to YATOー On quality description ー Riichiro Mizoguchi ISIR, Osaka University

  2. Rough Idea • The top-level structure and qualityinherited from BFO • Separation of quantity (value) and quality inherited from DOLCE + • The idea of Role from Hozo • Separation of the reality and its description = A new upper level ontology for quality & quantity in YATO

  3. Issues • Generic issues • Coping with two kinds of realities • The reality and several kinds of data descriptions • Clear separation of the two in the ontology • Coping with Change better • Specific issues • Problems in PATO • quality type vs. quality vs. quantity • Separation of quantity and quality • Quantity as representation • Quality ontology in YATO implemented in Hozo

  4. Problems in PATO Hiroshi Masuya RIKEN, Japan Hiroshi Masuya, RIKEN, Japan

  5. BFO-PATO YATO-PATO_term Single hierarchy model of quality(No differentiation of quality from quantity) Dual hierarchy model of quality(Differentiation of quality into quality type and quality value) class instance class instance length increased length length of tail of mouse_1 length length of tail of mouse_1 (attribute-slim) (value-slim) referring to ordinal scale value increased length <E,A,V> = <tail, length, increased length> <E,Q> = <tail, increased length> Hiroshi Masuya, RIKEN, Japan

  6. Quantitative and Qualitative description of phenotypic quality Tail of mouse_1 10cm long and longer than wild-type BFO-PATO YATO-PATO_term class instance class instance increased length length length of tail of mouse_1 length of tail of mouse_1 length 10cm referring to ordinal scale value increased length Double inheritance! rational scale value 10cm Hiroshi Masuya, RIKEN, Japan

  7. Quantitative comparison or “D/W/H” ?? H:10cm D: 20cm W: 20cm Whole body of mouse_1 Whole body of mouse_2 H:10cm D: 20cm W:10cm BFO-PATO H of a mouse_1 10cm of height H of a mouse_2 Height 10cm of width W of a mouse_1 Width length 20cm of width W of a mouse_2 Depth 20cm of Depth D of a mouse_2 Cross-attribute equivalence of “10cm”(20cm) is lost. Hiroshi Masuya, RIKEN, Japan

  8. Other problems Missing meanings: <male (female) (semi-)fertile is-a (semi-)fertile> <male (female) (semi-)sterile is-a (semi-)sterile> <Decreased (increased) male (female) fertility is-a decreased (increased) fertility> How to represent abnormality in <E,Q>?<E,A,V> = <tail_1, length, abnormal> 1-hierarchy model brings PATO-tree some complication of attribute-slims and value-slims. Hiroshi Masuya, RIKEN, Japan

  9. Reality of quality description • In engineering and physics, <E,A,V> description is the standard • In clinical medicine, there are many <E,P,V> descriptions • We should realize “Value” (played by quantity) as reality • We need interoperability among these kinds of quality descriptions.

  10. Dependent on the way of measuring Associated with John length quantity Object/human Quite generic Unit/dimension number 160cm 50Kg Reality of quality/quantity Quality: John’s height of 160cm long ← This is the only reality we share!? The issue is how to wisely model it What exist here: John, John’s height, height, length, 160cm long,160, cm • Quality type: length, weight, etc. as a kind of qualities Then, what is height? Is 160cm an instance of length? BFO: <160cm instance-of quality type> • Quality dimension: 160cm is a value rather than an instance • Quality: John’s height, John’s weight, etc., independently of how big and when as an identity holder • Quality as role: height, depth, etc. are roles played by length • Quality must be something associated with an entity • So, <160cm long> can’t be a quality • Quantity: 160cm, 50Kg, etc. Quantity is generic. 160cm could be height of John and Tom,distance between A and B, etc. Quantity as representation: 1m=100cm=1000mm=0.001Km • Property: a pair of quality type and quantity: <height, 160cm>This is compliant with “state”; hungry = <hunger state, hungry>tall = <height, high or long> John

  11. Quality type Quality length quantity Object/human Unit/dimension Generic Quality type number 160cm 50Kg Reality of quality/quantity 2 Quality instance: John’s height of 160cm long ← This is the only reality we share! The issue is how to wisely model it What exist here: John, John’s height, height, length, 160cm long,160, cm • Generic quality type: length, weight, etc. as a kind of qualitiesHeight, width, or distance are not included. 160cm is an instance notof length but of length quantity. • Quality dimension: 160cm is a value rather than an instance • Quality: John’s height, John’s weight, etc., independently of how big and when as an identity holder • Quality type (Quality as role): height, depth, etc. played by length So, <160cm long> is a player of quality as role. • Quantity: 160cm, 50Kg, etc. Quantity is generic. 160cm could be height of John and Tom,distance between A and B, etc. Quantity as representation: 1m=100cm=1000mm=0.001Km • Property (quality): a pair of quality type and quantity: <height, 160cm> which is compliant with “state”; hungry = <hunger state, hungry> tall = <height, high or long> • Quality must be something associated with an entity John

  12. Representation of quality of reality = also a reality →Interoperability among them is necessary

  13. Concluding remarks • A comprehensive ontology for quality & quantity has been proposed enabling interoperability of existing descriptions • Its features include: • Separation of quantity and quality • Separation of the reality and description • Clear identification of quality, quality instance, quality type and generic quality type. • Ontology of quality & quantity has been under evaluation through building • A clinical ontology • A phenotype ontology of Mouse

  14. Ontology of representation • Distinction among the following three things • Representation which is composed of • Representation form • Representation content • Represented thing which is composed of • Representation • Representation media • Representation content • which is-aProposition • Examples • My speech “I like Barry” is-aRepresented thing • using speech media • The writing “I like Barry” is-aRepresented thing • using paper media • the representation form of “I like Barry” is-a NL sentence

  15. Ontology of representation Representation Concrete/physical Proposition Occurrent Symbolic Rep. 2-D rep. Proposition -product Proposition -design Rep. with symbol Utterance 2-D Sound Painting Figure Rep. with language Vehicle Event is-a Music score Letter Letter Music instance-of Novel Drama Specification instance-of Noise Musical sound Throw instance-of Sentence Symphony instance-of “There is a house” Score of “The 5th” Speech sound Playing music Design drawing of Corolla Writing action instance-of Hamlet instance-of instance-of instance-of Car “The 5th” Playing drama Script of Hamlet part-of A throwing action Figure of letter part-of instance-of part-of Corolla realization-of Spec. of the 5th Music symbol Spec. of Corolla instance-of Spec. of all actions Elements of figure Spec. of Corolla Natural Language-1 generated-by instance-of Sound produced by a performance of the 5th A performance of the 5th Sentences of Tale of Genji instance-of instance-of instance-of An action of writing “a” instance-of part-of realization-of realization-of instance-of instance-of Corolla-1 Tale of Genji Natural language Content of the story realization-of generated-by A performance of Hamlet A particular “a” A linear figure of “a” Legend: is-a instance-of realization-of generated-by Special part-of for representation equivalence Mona Lisa Without canvas Mona Lisa with canvas part-of realization-of Spec. of the figure Liner figure-1 realization-of “a” realization-of

  16. Ontology (not description) Quantity Quantity Generic quality type Quality type Quality Quality instance

  17. As quality Same ID In quantity space, Different ID Identity of a quality We need to captureChange of quality 170cm 160cm 2008 2009

  18. To be defined Referring to the other type Type slot name Constraint of slot value name of the slot value To be defined Referring to the other type Context Role concept Role player Role holder To be defined Type/role/part definition in Hozo