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Europe During the Middle Ages. AP World History Unit 2. Germanic States. Roman empire overran by Germanic groups with repeated invasions and constant warfare. Breakdown of trade: money became scarce. Cities abandoned, no longer center of economy or administration Population became rural.

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europe during the middle ages

Europe During the Middle Ages

AP World History

Unit 2

germanic states
Germanic States
  • Roman empire overran by Germanic groups with repeated invasions and constant warfare.
    • Breakdown of trade: money became scarce.
    • Cities abandoned, no longer center of economy or administration
    • Population became rural.
    • Decline of literacy – priests and other church officials were the few that were literate.
    • Breakup of unified empire – language began to change. No longer Latin.
    • End of Democracy.
end of democracy
End of Democracy
  • Rome
    • Unified by loyalty to public government and written law.
    • Orderly government
  • Germanic States
    • Family ties and personal loyalty.
    • People lived in small communities governed by unwritten rules and traditions.
    • Ruled by a chief who led a band or warriors loyal only to him, not some emperor they would never see.
changes in europe
Changes in Europe
  • After the decline of the Roman Empire small kingdoms sprang up all over Europe.
  • The largest and the strongest was controlled by the Franks.
    • Lead by Clovis, first Christian king.
    • Area that is now France.
    • Greatest king was Charlemagne.
      • Most powerful king in Western Europe.
      • Encouraged learning.
the church
The Church
  • Papacy keeps power of the monarchs in check.
  • Catholic Church is largest, single landowner in Western Europe.
  • Excommunication from the Church excludes the individual from the sacraments.
  • Accused heretics are tried by a special court called the Inquisition.
  • The Church organizes hospitals, refuges and orphanages for the ill and destitute.
the clergy
The Clergy
  • Influenced all levels of society, especially kings.
  • The only group in society that was educated.
  • Guided everything in life.
    • Baptism, marriage, death, etc.
  • Power to condemn or to forgive.
  • Very powerful in people’s lives.
the church hierarchy
The Church Hierarchy
  • Pope
    • Head of the church.
    • Latin for “father”.
  • Cardinals
    • Advisors to the Pope.
    • Controlled the Archbishops.
    • Chooses new Pope from the Cardinals.
  • Archbishops
    • Controlled the archdiocese and bishops.
the church hierarchy1
The Church Hierarchy
  • Bishops
    • Controlled the diocese.
      • Diocese are located in cities and provinces.
      • They are divided into many parishes.
  • Abbots
    • Controlled the monasteries and local parishes.
  • Priests
    • Controlled the local church or parish.
    • Led religious services.
      • Weddings, baptism, funerals, etc.
    • Cared for the sick.
the church hierarchy2
The Church Hierarchy
  • Monks
    • Lived in monasteries.
    • Hard and physical labor to support the community they lived in.
    • Occasionally preached.
    • Lowest on the hierarchy, but very important because they had the most contact with the common people.
  • Nuns
    • Not considered part of the hierarchy, but the only position women could hold in the church.
    • Charitable work.
    • Worked with the poor.
    • Controlled convents.
      • Communities for nuns.
    • Sworn to never marry.
monasteries
Monasteries
  • Complex design with many different buildings.
    • Granaries.
    • Breweries.
    • Bakeries
    • Wineries.
    • Churches.
    • Libraries.
    • Hospitals.
    • Schools.
  • Acted as a self contained town.
the seven sacraments
The Seven Sacraments
  • Sacred acts that impart grace upon the individual
  • Only members of the clergy can administer the sacraments.
    • Baptism
    • Confirmation
    • Ordination (for clergy)
    • Matrimony
    • Penance (confession and absolution of sins)
    • Eucharist (holy communion)
    • Extreme unction (last rites)
the church and nobles
The Church and Nobles
  • Church encouraged people that their souls would be saved by giving money to the church.
  • Nobles were encouraged to leave land to the church when they died in return the Noble would go to heaven.
    • This increased the wealth of the church.
  • Power struggle with the Kings and the Popes.
the good side of the church
The Good Side of the Church
  • Preserver of learning
  • Art
    • music, stained glass, and wood carvings
  • Medicine
  • Shelter for poor
  • Giver of food
  • Scientist
  • Illumination
  • People found hope
    • turned to the church for guidance and comfort
  • Church offered salvation through the sacraments
the bad side of the church
The Bad Side of the Church
  • Amassed wealth
  • Owned land
  • Some where dishonest
  • Simony
  • Political involvement
  • Corruption
  • Immorality
urban life
Urban Life
  • Crusades open up new trade routes.
  • Markets, close to rivers, expand in response to flourishing trade and increased agricultural yields.
  • Urban space provides location for merchant class (middle class) to develop.
  • Charters of self-development purchased from lords give citizens of towns degree of independence.
urban life1
Urban Life
  • Merchants and craftspeople form guilds to protect buyers and sellers.
  • Professions develop system of training where an apprentice learns the craft from a journeyman.
  • Commercial centers, like Bruges, Florence, and Venice, become influential city-states.
  • Stone walls, cathedrals, and guildhalls are built.
universities
Universities
  • Began as cathedral schools in the urban centers of Western Europe like Bologna, Oxford, Paris, and Cambridge.
  • Comes from the word universities, which is Latin for guild or corporation.
  • Offered Liberal Arts curriculum: grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music.
universities1
Universities
  • Programs in theology, medicine, and law also offered.
  • Women are excluded from receiving a higher education.
  • Become places of lively debate.
scholasticism
Scholasticism
  • Theological scholars are influenced by Aristotle’s writings, transcribed and commented by Arabic scholars.
  • Scholars reconcile Aristotle’s rationalistic approach to knowledge with the Christian reliance on faith.
  • Aristotle’s logical explanation of the Unmoved Mover helps Aquinas prove God’s existence.
scholasticism1
Scholasticism
  • Aquinas elevates the use of reason to discover God’s world, yet still relies on revelation to fathom God’s mysteries.
  • Thomas Aquinas’s theology exhibits a hierarchical view of the world with man being the closest of earthly creatures to God.
    • He lived from 1225-1274.
the church in medieval europe questions
The Church in Medieval Europe Questions

These questions do not need to be turned in for a grade,

however you do need to know them for maybe a quiz or test in the future. 

  • Why do you think the Catholic Church felt the need to control the political life as well as the spiritual life of the people? How did it do so?
  • How did the development of a merchant class and urban life change the landscape of Europe?
  • Do you think scholasticism enhanced or undermined the power of the Catholic Church?
  • Why do you think the Last Judgment and visions of heaven and hell were popular subjects for literature, the visual arts and music?
  • How do the Gothic stained glass windows represent the Medieval view of the truth?