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Europe during the Middle Ages

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Section 3 Chapter 1. Europe during the Middle Ages. The Viking Explorations. The Vikings were from Scandinavia– this includes Denmark, Norway, and Sweden The curved ends of the Viking ships made them better for the rough North Atlantic They raided and traded through out Europe

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the viking explorations
The Viking Explorations
  • The Vikings were from Scandinavia– this includes Denmark, Norway, and Sweden
  • The curved ends of the Viking ships made them better for the rough North Atlantic
  • They raided and traded through out Europe
  • Much of what we know about the Vikings comes from sagas (Viking stories)
the viking explorations1
The Viking Explorations
  • Leif Erikssongathered a crew in about A.D. 1000 and reached North America, landing on the island of Newfoundland (first European contact with North America)
  • Eriksson settled at an area called Vinland but left after a few years
  • Their main reason for leaving was Native attacks
the middle ages
The Middle Ages
  • The Middle Ages in Europe begins as the Roman Empire ends in the late A.D. 300s
  • The time period is roughly from A.D. 500 to 1500
  • Trade and communication during this time were limited and populations of cities fell
the middle ages1
The Middle Ages
  • Feudalism emerged during this time period
  • Vassals would pledge their loyalty to a lord in exchange for land
  • Lords needed money to equip and feed knights that defended their manor (large estate)
the middle ages2
The Middle Ages
  • Peasants were free tenants or serfs that farmed the land
  • Tenants rented their land while serfs lived on the land for free both were loyal to the lord in exchange for his protection
life on the manor
Life on the Manor
  • Lords and their families lived in large wooden or stone houses or castles
  • Noblemen spent their time ruling, fighting in battle, and managing their farmland
  • Noblemen and Noblewomen spent a large amount of time carrying out duties as Christians
  • Eleanor of Aquitaine was described as the ideal noblewomen as “beautiful yet virtuous (moral), powerful yet gentle, humble yet keenwitted (intelligent)
  • As a peasant the whole family lived, ate, and slept in the same room
  • Under feudalism a person’s birth usually determined their place in society
the catholic church
The Catholic Church
  • The Catholic Church was the center of religious and social life in the Middle Ages
  • Most Europeans during this time were Roman Catholic
  • By the 800s, the Church owned large amounts of land and advised rulers on important decisions
  • Many art and achitecture projects were paid for by the Catholic Church
the catholic church1
The Catholic Church
  • Monasteries were important because they housed monks who gave up all personal possessions and created centers of learning and produced books
  • Though Monasteries themselves had vast lands
the catholic church2
The Catholic Church
  • Convents allowed the same thing for women who would then become nuns
  • Women would sometimes choose this life instead of marriage and child-rearing
  • Convents did allow women to become educated which did not happen any where else
the rise of nations
The Rise of Nations
  • During the mid and late Middle Ages some nobles were losing power to kingdoms
  • William of Normandy conquered England in 1066 and made it into one of the kingdoms in the world
  • He then surveyed the kingdom and put together the “Domesday Book” or Day of Judgement Book for taxes
the rise of nations1
The Rise of Nations
  • In 1215 the nobles rebelled against William’s great-great-grandson King John and made him sign the Magna Carta (Great Charter)
  • It was the first document that protected free people from the King
the rise of nations2
The Rise of Nations
  • In the early 1200s trade greatly increased and Italian Merchants began to trade with nations around the Mediterranean Sea and northern Europe
  • This marked the beginning of the Renaissance, a rebirth of arts and learning of ancient Greece and Rome
the rise of nations3
The Rise of Nations
  • Farming changed during this time as farmers learned to rotate crops, fertilize crops, and new technology lead to a greater output for farmers
  • This lead to rise in population in towns and cities
  • With this growth of technology, trade, and kingdoms– the 1500s marked the ending of the Middle Ages