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Chapter 10. Special Senses. Special Senses. Touch Vision Hearing Smell Taste . Sensory Receptors. Stimulated by changes in the environment Generalized in body Touch, pain, temperature and pressure (proprioceptors). Sensory Receptors. Specific receptors Taste buds of the tongue

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chapter 10

Chapter 10

Special Senses

special senses
Special Senses
  • Touch
  • Vision
  • Hearing
  • Smell
  • Taste
sensory receptors
Sensory Receptors
  • Stimulated by changes in the environment
  • Generalized in body
      • Touch, pain, temperature and pressure (proprioceptors)
sensory receptors4
Sensory Receptors
  • Specific receptors
      • Taste buds of the tongue
      • In the nose
      • In the retina of the eye
      • In the inner ear (organ of Corti)
the eye
The Eye
  • Tender sphere about 1 inch (2.5 cm) in diameter
  • Protected by orbital socket, eyebrows, eyelids, and eyelashes
  • Lacrimal duct and glands
the eye6
The Eye
  • Oil glands
  • Conjunctiva
  • Stereoscopic vision
  • The wall of the eye has three layers
      • Sclera
      • Choroid
      • Retina
sclera
Sclera
  • Outer layer of the eye which is the white of the eye
  • Fibrous capsule maintains shape and protects
  • Extrinsic muscles
extrinsic muscles
Extrinsic Muscles
  • Superior rectus
  • Inferior rectus
  • Lateral rectus
  • Medial rectus
  • Superior rectus
  • Inferior oblique
cornea
Cornea
  • Circular clear area in front center of the sclerotic coat
  • Transparency allows passage of light rays
  • Five layers
  • Very sensitive to pain and touch
choroid coat and the iris
Choroid Coat and the Iris
  • Middle layer of the eye
  • Blood vessels to nourish the eye
  • Nonreflective pigment rendering it dark and opaque
  • Circular opening called the pupil
choroid coat and the iris12
Choroid Coat and the Iris
  • Muscular layer surround the pupil called the iris
  • Color of iris depends on the number and size of melanin pigment
  • Intrinsic muscles
      • Sphincter papillae (constricts pupil)
      • Dilator papillae (dilates pupil)
lens and related structures
Lens and Related Structures
  • Lens
      • Crystalline structure located behind the iris and pupil
  • Ciliary body
  • Anterior chamber
      • Aqueous humor
  • Posterior chamber
      • Vitreous humor
retina
Retina
  • Innermost, or third coat of the eye
  • Images focus on the retina
  • Optic nerve
  • Cerebral cortex (occipital lobe)
retina15
Retina
  • Rods and cones
  • Macula lutea and fovea centralis
  • Optic nerve or blind spot
pathway of vision
Pathway of Vision
  • Images in the light
  • Cornea
  • Pupil
  • Lens
  • Retina
pathway of vision17
Pathway of Vision
  • Rods and cones
  • Optic nerve
  • Optic chiasma
  • Optic tracts
  • Occipital lobe of the brain for interpretation
animation how we see
Animation – How We See

Click Here to play Vision animation

eye disorders
Eye Disorders
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Glaucoma
  • Cataracts
  • Macular degeneration
eye disorders20
Eye Disorders
  • Detached retina
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Sty (hordeolum)
eye surgery
Eye Surgery
  • Cataract surgery
      • Phacoemulsification
      • Extracapsular extraction
  • Detached retina surgery
      • Laser surgery and cryotherapy
      • Pneumatic retinopexy
      • Vitrectomy
      • Scleral buckle
eye surgery22
Eye Surgery
  • Visual defects
  • LASIK (laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis)
  • PRK (photorefractive keratectomy)
eye injuries
Eye Injuries
  • Simple eye irritation
  • Corneal abrasions and scarring
  • Chemical or fragment eye irritations
eyestrain
Eyestrain
  • Signs and symptoms
  • Most common cause is a computer
  • Dry eyes can also cause eyestrain
  • Prevention
vision defects
Vision Defects
  • Night blindness
  • Color blindness
  • Presbyopia
  • Hyperopia
  • Myopia
vision defects26
Vision Defects
  • Amblyopia
  • Astigmatism
  • Diplopia
  • Strabismus
effects of aging eye
Effects of Aging – Eye
  • Decreased ability to focus on fine detail
  • Compromised accommodation
  • Slower to adjust to changing light conditions
  • Peripheral vision and depth perception decline
  • Loss of visual acuity
the ear
The Ear
  • Picks up sound waves and sends these impulses to the auditory center of the brain
  • Auditory center in temporal area just above ears
  • Receptor for hearing
      • Organ of Corti
  • Involved in equilibrium
outer ear
Outer Ear
  • Pinna
  • Canal glands
  • Tympanic membrane
middle ear
Middle Ear
  • Connects to pharynx (throat) via eustachian tube
  • Hammer (malleus)
  • Anvil (incus)
  • Stirrup (stapes)
inner ear
Inner Ear
  • Cochlea
  • Cochlear duct
  • Organ of Corti
  • Three semicircular canals
pathway of hearing
Pathway of Hearing
  • Sound waves
  • Pinna
  • Auditory canal
  • Tympanic membrane
  • Ear ossicles
pathway of hearing33
Pathway of Hearing
  • Cochlea receptors
  • Cochlear nerve
  • Temporal lobe of the brain for interpretation
animation how we hear
Animation – How We Hear

Click Here to play Hearing animation

pathway of equilibrium
Pathway of Equilibrium
  • Movement of head
  • Stimulates equilibrium receptors in the semicircular and vestibule areas of the inner ear
  • Vestibular nerve
  • Cerebellum of the brain for interpretation
loud noise and hearing loss
Loud Noise and Hearing Loss
  • Hearing is both sensitive and fragile
  • Damage done by loud noises
  • Sound measured in decibels
  • Prevention of damage
ear disorders
Ear Disorders
  • Otitis media
  • Otosclerosis
  • Tinnitus
  • Presbycusis
  • Meniere’s disease
types of hearing loss
Types of Hearing Loss
  • Conductive hearing loss
  • Sensorineural damage
effects of aging hearing
Effects of Aging – Hearing
  • Tympanic membrane becomes fibrous
  • Degeneration of ear bones, vestibular structure, cochlea, and organ of Corti
  • Loss of hearing high-pitched frequencies
  • Diminished ability to hear consonants
  • Speech of others sounds garbled
hearing aids
Hearing Aids
  • Behind the ear (BTE)
  • In the ear (ITE)
  • Canal aids
  • Body aids
the nose
The Nose
  • Smell accounts for about 90% of what we think of as taste
  • Warms and moistens air breathed in
  • Receptors
      • Olfactory epithelium and bulbs
  • Olfactory nerve
  • Limbic system, thalamus, and frontal cortex
disorders of the nose
Disorders of the Nose
  • Rhinitis
  • Nasal polyps
  • Deviated nasal septum
effects of aging smell
Effects of Aging – Smell
  • Decreased in the number of olfactory neurons
  • Decreased sense of smell affects appetite, social relationships, and detection of warning smells
  • Senile rhinitis
the tongue
The Tongue
  • Tongue is a mass of muscle tissue
  • Papillae
  • Taste buds for sweet, sour, salty, and bitter
  • Receptors in the taste buds send stimuli through three cranial nerves to the cerebral cortex for interpretation
effects of aging tasting
Effects of Aging – Tasting
  • Decrease in taste buds
  • Increased amounts of salt, sweet, sour, and bitter needed to identify the food
  • Impact of full upper dentures
disorders of the tongue
Disorders of the Tongue
  • Traumatic injury
  • Hairiness
  • Discoloration
  • Infection
  • Cancer
  • Burning mouth syndrome