Imperialism Nature and Causes
Forms of Imperialism • Peoples of European descent, including Russians and North Americans, created colonial settlements, or “neo-Europes,” displacing or assimilating indigenous peoples.
Forms of Imperialism • European states and commercial firms established considerable economic domination in certain areas, notably Latin America and China, while Japan and the United States also participated in this economic expansionism.
Forms of Imperialism • In the later 19th century, European states embarked on the “new imperialism” or the competitive race to establish political as well as economic control over previously uncolonized regions of Africa and Asia.
Meiji Restoration • 1889 – Meiji Constitution • Modeled after German Constitution • All citizens equal before the law • Established parliament with limited powers • Maintained Emperor with autocratic powers • Limited suffrage to male property owners • The goal was not to bring democracy, but to unite Japan
Meiji Economic Reform • Government improved and added to infrastructure • Encouraged Western business practices • Sent advisors overseas to learn • Recognized need to industrialize • Promoted cooperation, not competition (as in America) • Zaibatsu – large financial and industrial corporations that concentrated many business forms into one company dominated by a single family
Social Changes • Encouraged Western education model and content, but loyalty to family and Emperor were emphasized • Free to choose occupation, but class distinction still held on • Women remained second-class citizens
Japan as Imperialist Nation • Why would Japan be motivated to strengthen its military, one of the key factors in its economic development?
British Rule in India • Parliament, as the British governing body, made all legislation for the area and was the ultimate authority • A Viceroy was appointed to oversee affairs in India • British civil servants held all top positions • British law and government was the norm throughout the region
Political Impact of British Rule on India • The implementation of British law throughout the region served to unite and mold the nation of India • Government became an avenue of advance for some educated Indians in that the British made use of Indians as lower level civil servants and sepoys • Attempted to promote Indian democratic values with the founding of the Indian National Congress
Economic Impact of British Rule • After the Sepoy Rebellion, the British spent immense sums of money to develop India economically – What would be their motivation in doing so? • Built and improved India’s infrastructure: the British improved roads, built railroads and telegraph systems, modernized ports and sewer systems • This helped improve trade and transportation between India and Britain • Also aided England in controlling the colony • Forced high taxes on Indians to support army there
Economic Impact of British Rule • Exploited the Indians economically and kept it from modernizing and industrializing • Indians were made to trade only with England and buy the low-cost British textiles; served to destroy India’s cottage industry & impoverished the Indian countryside especially • In order to pay for these goods, many Indians (zamindars – used as local revenue collectors and eventually became large landowners through peasant forfeiture) and British landowners turned to growing cash crops (e.g. cotton, jute) that could be sold on the world market • This meant periodic famines and food shortages throughout India
Social Effects in India • Improved health care and infrastructure led to a reduction in disease and the death rate. This led to the beginnings of a population explosion. • The changes caused by the slow erosion of the cottage industries as well as the population growth led to urbanization. Many young Indians sought job opportunities in the large port cities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. • This also led to the slow erosion of the caste system as caste was harder to identify in cities.
Social Effects in India • The British allowed for increased educational opportunities for wealthy Hindus and Muslims. • The schools, however, emphasized British culture and the English language. • English became the common language and further served to unite the region. • All of these changes meant the growth of a small, educated middle class. • British racial attitudes ensured that Indians would always be considered less than equal to a British citizen.
Imperialism • “The more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race. … If there be a God, I think what he would like me to do is to paint as much of the map of Africa British red as possible.” • Cecil Rhodes
Political – Administrative Systems • Direct Rule (Assimilation) • Indirect Rule (Association)
Economic Policies • Infrastructure • Cost • Development of money economy
Social Transformations • Missionaries • Education • Color Bar (Westernization)