Forms of Energy Kinetic Energy – Energy of Motion Potential Energy – Energy of Position (stored energy
First Law of Thermodynamics • Energy can be transferred or transformed but it cannot be created or destroyed
Second Law of Thermodynamics • Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the Universe
Nuclear Fission • Isotopes with large mass numbers are split by being struck with a neutron which releases energy and more neutrons
Nuclear Fusion • Two light isotopes are forced together at high temperatures to form a heavier nucleus and releases a large amount of energy
Three Scientific Laws There is no away (conservation of matter) You cannot get something for nothing (1st law) You cannot break even (2nd law)
Principle Tom McCoy p 111 # 28
Dot Diagram • Nuclear Weapons Chart • Center Dot – 3 megatons - WWII firepower
World War II • 6 years for U.S. • 100 million died Globally
Dot Diagram • Nuclear Weapons Chart • Whole Chart – 18,000 megatons (6000 WWIIs) • Top Left hand circle – 9 megatons – One Poseidon submarine (31 subs and 10 Polaris subs) • Lower left hand circle – 24 megatons – Trident Submarine • 2 squares enough to destroy all the large and medium cities in the world
Little Boy - Uranium It exploded with an energy of 16 kilotons of TNT (67 TJ). It has been estimated that 130,000 to 150,000 people had died as a result of its use by the end of December 1945
Hiroshima • The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of "Little Boy"
Fat Man - Plutonium It exploded with an impact of 21 kilotons of energy (75 million sticks of dynamite) An estimated 39,000 people were killed outright by the bombing at Nagasaki, and a further 25,000 were injured.Thousands more died later from related blast and burn injuries, and hundreds more from radiation illnesses from exposure to the bomb's initial radiation.
Nagasaki • Mushroom cloud from the atomic explosion over Nagasaki rising 60,000 feet into the air on the morning of August 9, 1945.
Countries with Nuclear Weapons • Red – Nuclear Powers (Big 5) • Brown – other known nuclear powers • Purple – countries who once had nuclear weapons • Yellow – countries that are suspected of developing weapons • Blue – countries that at one point had nuclear weapons or programs
People of Principle Robert Oppenheimer • Now, I have become Death, the destroyer of worlds
The Last Epidemic Obama Prague Speech – A world without Nuclear Weapons
Principles p 111 # 28 p 118 # 4 P 104 # 15