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INTRODUCTION - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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LEADEARSHIP AND POWER IN ORGANIZATIONS BY WANENO CHARLES OMONDI PRESENTED ON 23 RD APRIL 2009 FACILITATED BY: DR. MARGARET GACHURU. INTRODUCTION. What is leadership? A dynamic process of influencing others to achieve organisational goals. It is more than personality or appointment

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What is leadership?

A dynamic process of influencing others to achieve organisational goals.

It is more than personality or appointment

Oxford English Dictionary defines it as..‘to cause to go with one…..to provide guidance’

Leaders set direction and people follow them.

It is about inspiring individuals to give their best towards achieving expected results.

Leader directs group towards goals

Difference between leaders and managers

The biggest difference between these two concepts is the

way in which they motivate people to work or follow them

Difference between leaders and managers cont d

Zalenzik describes the differences as follows


  • The Charismatic leader - one who gains influence mainly from strength of personality e.g. Napoleon, Hitler, Churchill and others.

  • The Traditional leader - one whose position is assured by birth, e.g. kings, queens and tribal chieftains. This is another category to which few people can aspire.

  • The Situational leader - one whose influence can only be effective by being in the right place at the right time.

  • The Appointed leader - whose influence arises directly out of his position, e.g. most managers and supervisors.

  • The Functional leader – who secures their leadership position by what he/ she does rather than by what they are. In other words, functional leaders adapt their behaviour to meet the competing needs of the situation.

The key leadership variables.

The key variables are:

  • The leader

  • Tasks/goals,

  • Group members (subordinates), and

  • The environment/situation.

    Taken together these variables form the total leadership

    situation, and the art of leadership is to find the best

    balance between them in the light of the total situation.

How leaders influence others

Barton (1998) in his book, states that most people accept the influence

of leaders because they have power.

What is power? Power is the capacity to affect the behavior of others.

Ledgers rely on types of power which include;

Legitimate power - this stems from a position’s placement in the managerial hierarchy and the authority vested in the position.

Reward power – is based on the capacity to control and provide valued reward to others,such as pay rises, bonuses,etc.

Coercive power – this depends on the ability to punish others when they do not engage in desired behaviors,e.g criticisms, reprimands, suspensions, warning letters that go to a person’s office file,,etc

Expert power – it is based on the possession of expertise that is valued by others.

Information power – this result from access to and control over the distribution of important information about organizational operations and future plans.

Referent power – results from being admired, personally identified with or liked by others.


Armstrong and Stephens (2006) categorize essential

Leadership roles into three.They have to;

Define tasks – make it clear what the group has to do.

Achieve the task – they ensure that the groups’ purpose is fulfilled

Maintain effective relationships – between themselves and the members of the group, and between the people within the group.


John Adair cited in ‘A handbook for management and leadership’ lists

the following generic qualities as those that good leaders should have;

Enthusiasm – to get things done which they can communicate to other people.

Confidence – belief in themselves which again people can sense

Toughness – resilient, tenacious, and demanding high standards, seeking respect but not necessarily popularity.

Integrity – being true to oneself, personal wholeness, soundness and honesty, which inspire trust.

Warmth – in personal relationships, caring for people and being considerate

Humility - willingness to listen and take the blame; not being arrogant and overbearing.


Emotional intelligence is defined as the capacity for recognizing our

own feelings and that of others, for motivating ourselves, for managing

emotions well in ourselves as well as others.

An emotionally intelligent person understands his or her own strengths

and weaknesses and knows that it is more productive to manage

emotions rather than be led by them.

Some of the components of emotional intelligence identified by

Goleman as cited in ‘A handbook for management and leadership’ are:

Self-awareness – the ability to recognize and understand your moods, emotions and drives as well as their effect on others.

Self-regulation – the ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses and moods and regulate own behavior coupled with a propensity to pursue goals with energy and persistence.

Leadership & Emotional Intelligence (Cont’d)

Motivation – a passion to work for reasons that go beyond money and status and a propensity to pursue goals with energy and persistence.

Empathy – the ability to understand the emotional makeup of other people and skill in treating people according to their emotional reactions.

Social skills – proficiency in managing relationships and building networks to get the desired result from others and reach personal goals and the ability to find common ground and build rapport.


Ideas about leadership in management range from the 'ideal' approaches of the Scientific Managers and the Human Relations School to the pragmatic, or adaptive, approaches of the Contingency theorists.

The theories which have been put forward are generally classified under:

Trait theories

Style theories

Contingency theories.


The earliest studies that were undertaken into leadership focused their attention on the qualities required for effective leaders.

It has proved an impossible task to identify the particular traits or characteristics that separate leaders from non-leaders. Of those traits which do appear more frequently, intelligence, energy and Resourcefulness are perhaps the most representative.

One may ask the meaning of trait? Traits are distinctive internal

qualities or characteristics of an individual. For example,

Physical characteristics – such as height, weight, appearance, energy

Personality characteristics – dominance, extroversion, originality

Skills and abilities – intelligence, knowledge, technical competence

Social factors – interpersonal skills, sociability, and socioeconomic position


This is an interest in leadership as an aspect of behaviour at work,

rather than of personal characteristics . Examples include;


D. McGregor's Theory X manager - tough, autocratic and supporting tight controls with punishment-reward systems - the authoritarian. The contrasting style is that the Theory Y manager - benevolent, participative and believing in self-controls – the democrat.

Rensis Likert's four management systems:

System 1: the exploitive-authoritative system, which is the epitome of the authoritarian style.

System 2: the benevolent-authoritative system, which is basically a paternalistic style.

System 3: the consultative system, which moves towards greater democracy and teamwork.

System 4: the participative-group system, which is the ultimate democratic style.

Tannenbaum and Schmidt's model of a continuum of leadership styles, ranging from authoritarian behaviour at one end to democratic behaviour at the other.

Style theories (Cont’d)

People-task orientation

Examples of approaches utilizing two of the leadership variables

people and tasks – are as follows:

Michigan studies; These studies, first reported in 1950s, analyzed a number of variables between managers of high-productivity groups and managers of low-productivity groups. The object was to see if any significant differences could be identified, thus providing some clues to leadership behaviour.

Ohio studies; studies were conducted during the 1950s. They were concerned with describing leadership behaviour. Consideration described behaviour that was essentially relationships-oriented or considerate of employees' feelings. Initiating structure referred to behaviour concerned with the organization of the work processes including communication channels, allocating tasks etc.

Style theories (Cont’d)

The 3-D Theory; This adds considerably to the flexibility of leadership styles by including the factor of effectiveness in the dimensions.

Harvard studies; Harvard researchers identified two distinct groups of leaders; task leaders and socio-emotional leaders, who were mutually exclusive.

A person could not be a task leader and a socio- emotional leader as well.

The task leader showed a concern for the struc­turing of activities, whereas the socio-emotional leader showed concern for supportive relationships.

The Harvard results suggested that the two dimensions were mutually exclusive.

Leadership and the Organizational Life Cycle

The view of organizations as having life cycles, or predictable stages provides some guidance about when either transactional or transformational leadership is likely to be most appropriate.

When an organization is at its entrepreneurial or beginning stage, transformational leadership is particularly instrumental in creating a vision that allows the organization to be born and take a few steps.

At the collectivity stage, additional workers begin to join the initial core group and transactional leadership becomes an important aid in handling the accelerating growth.

By the formalization and control stage, organizational growth requires even greater emphasis on transactional leadership to maintain direction and control.

By the elaboration of the structure stage, excessive formalization and control often reduce innovation to a low level, so heavy emphasis on transformational leadership is again needed

CONTINGENCY THEORIES the initial core group and transactional leadership becomes an important aid in handling the accelerating growth.

Function or action-centred leadership

It is based on the theory that leadership is more a question of

appropriate behaviour than of personality or of being in the right

place at the right time.

Contingency leadership

Group performance is contingent upon the leader adopting an

appropriate style in the light of the relative favourableness of the


According to Fiedler, the three most important variables in

determining the relative favourableness of the situation are:

Leader-member relations

Degree of structure in task and

Power and authority of the position.

Application of leadesrhip in kenya s construction industry
APPLICATION OF LEADESRHIP IN KENYA’S CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY the initial core group and transactional leadership becomes an important aid in handling the accelerating growth.

Contracting firms – Contractors practice a dictatorial type of leadership where, they make rules which must be followed by the employed casual or formal labourers. This is mainly due to tight aspects of building projects which must be met such as, doing a project within the required time, budget, quality and scope. Lack of enforcement of these rules may make a project lag behind in the mentioned areas, making it not viable in the end.

Professional firms – These include architectural, quantity surveying and engineering firms. There exist many of such firms in Kenya, with majority belonging to individuals and a few, consisting of many employees.

Our observation is that in very big firms, both autocratic and democratic styles of leadership are used depending with the situation.

In some firms, the practice of sole proprietorship is common, which at times bars organisations from diversifying as only one person is in charge of making all decisions,

Application of leadership in Kenya (Cont’d) the initial core group and transactional leadership becomes an important aid in handling the accelerating growth.

Professional bodies and clubs – examples include BORAQS, ERB,

AAK, IQSK, IEK, etc. They show their leadership by regulating the

codes of conduct and ethics of their various professionals in the

industry. This ensures that all clients get professional services as

required and hence, value for their money.

The Government – The Kenyan government is practicing leadership

by setting up programs that ensure the transfer of technology to the

younger generation through apprenticeship training e.g. the 19 number

stalled projects in Kenya which the government has fairly distributed to

various consultants and construction firms with an aim of transfer of


Application of leadership in Kenya (Cont’d) the initial core group and transactional leadership becomes an important aid in handling the accelerating growth.

Institutions of higher learning – in our universities and colleges,

the lecturers usually act as symbol of leadership to the students.

Students tend to follow what they say, since they have a lot of

knowledge power that can be of help to the pupils.

Lecturers do influence the behaviours and attitudes of students

through the talks they have with them and this can either make a

student to choose the right path or not to.

They also act as role models to many pupils who at a young age are

never sure of which direction to take. They can influence the students

to give back to the society the knowledge they have received in their


Application of leadership in Kenya (Cont’d) the initial core group and transactional leadership becomes an important aid in handling the accelerating growth.

Other examples of leadership have been seen through;

Practicing Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): Some

construction companies in Kenya are increasingly practicing CSR.A

good example is the Bamburi Cement Factory which rehabilitated it’s

the wasteland quarries at the Coast into a marvellous ecosystem called

Haller Park.

ISO Certification: Very few Kenyan construction companies are ISO

certified. They include Gibb Africa and Wanjohi Consultants which are

engineering firms. This great step will encourage other firms to strive

for ISO certification hence improving the quality of service delivery in

the construction industry.

Challenges facing leadership in kenya
CHALLENGES FACING LEADERSHIP IN KENYA the initial core group and transactional leadership becomes an important aid in handling the accelerating growth.

  • Managing diversity; female vs. male leaders

    Here in Kenya, we have continuously experienced discrimination when

    it comes to women being in top leadership. Recently, parents and

    stakeholders of a school in Teso refused their children to go school,

    reasons being, they did not want the new headmistress to take position

    in the school, just because she was a woman!

    The government has however, recognised the need for women to also

    being given a chance in government positions by declaring that during

    recruitment, 30% should be women. The question is whether this has

    been implemented effectively.

  • Conservative leadership

  • Most private companies in Kenya are individually owned, and some of the old Turks who head them tend to be too rigid when it comes to embracing new ideas and technologies from the young generation.

  • Some of them have stayed so long in the powerful positions and they do not want to leave for others to lead.

  • Culture of corruption the initial core group and transactional leadership becomes an important aid in handling the accelerating growth.

    In Kenya, we have a very bad ethical culture, which has

    continuously been seen in or leaders.

    Most of them are corrupt in their dealings and lack accountability in

    their undertakings.

    This has really affected development in our country, since, as a

    common citizen, it is known that for you to have something done, you

    must bribe someone to do it for you. This behaviour is rampant in

    government offices especially, and until our leaders change, we still

    have along way to go.

  • Leading by example

    Most of our leaders preach water and rink wine. They do not lead by

    example, since the same things that they condemn, are the same

    things that they are engaged in. leaders should behave well, at all

    times both in public and in private. This is the only true mark of a great


Way forward and conclusion
WAY FORWARD AND CONCLUSION the initial core group and transactional leadership becomes an important aid in handling the accelerating growth.

  • To be a great leader, one needs to know the

    tasks to be done, goals to be met and

    inspire people to do these voluntarily without

    putting pressure.

  • A good leader will always think of the people

    more, than the tasks.

  • Managers should learn to lead first if they

    want their goals to be met.