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PSY 552 Social Development Emotional Development Heather Foran October 21, 2004. Definitions of Emotion Emotional Development. Two Topics In Emotion Study. Definitions of Emotion. Function and structure Two dimensions Basic emotions Social emotions Love?

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PSY 552Social Development

Emotional Development

Heather ForanOctober 21, 2004

definitions of emotion4
Function and structure

Two dimensions

Basic emotions

Social emotions



Definitions of Emotion
function and structure
Emotion as a motivator

(e.g., Psychoanalytic Theory, Behavioral Theory)

The role of morphology

Facial feedback hypothesis

(e.g. Ekman, Levenson, & Friesen, 1983)

Affect families (Shaver, & Schwartz, et al. 1987)

Action tendencies (Frijda, 1986)

Function and Structure
two dimensions
1. Pleasure

2. Arousal

Circumplex models of personality and emotions

Two Dimensions
basic emotions
6-7 Basic emotions








Basic Emotions
evidence for basic emotions
Literate and pre-literate cultures (Ekman et al, 1969; Izard, 1971; Ekman, & Friesen, 1972)

- Ekman et al. (5 cultures)

- Izard (9 cultures)

- match emotion labels to still photos

High levels of agreement across cultures for some emotions.

Evidence for Basic Emotions
social emotions



Requires self-awareness and cognitive appraisal

Social Emotions
where does love fit in
Bond-related behavior

Present from birth in (all) humans

Does not appear to be a discrete emotion

Where Does Love Fit In?
Some argue feelings are present at birth (e.g., Izard, 1977)

Some argue feelings are present at 9 mo

(e.g., Lewis, & Michalson, 1983; Sroufe, 1979).

Not always included in definition of emotion. (e.g., Campos et al. 1994)

feelings defined
Feelings = Emotion.

Many lay defintions

2. Feelings = Emotion, BUT Emotion ≠ Feelings.

Campos et al., 1994 argue that feelings are one facet of emotion

and derive from 4 sources.

Appraisal (Lazarus, 1991)

Efference (e.g., Ekman, et al. 1983)

Striated and Smooth Muscles

Social induction (e.g., McIntosh, et al. 1994)

Feelings Defined
why is emotional development important

Relationships with others

Cognitive development

Subjective well-being

Why Is Emotional Development Important?
influences on emotional development
Affection and attachment

Interaction with caregiver

Stimulating Environment

Social and cultural norms

Individual differences

Childhood adversity

Influences On Emotional Development
types of emotional development
Recognition in others

Recognition in self


Social rules for emotion displays (Bianca)

Regulation (Bianca)

Temperament/Emotional Style (Tom)

Types Of Emotional Development
recognizing emotion
In Others

Perceptual discrimination

Emotional contagion

Social referencing

In Self

Recognizing Emotion
recognizing emotion in others
Perceptual Discrimination

Facial expression discrimination

Auditory discrimination

Gesture and posture discrimination

Is it really emotion discrimination?

Recognizing Emotion In Others
recognizing emotion in others19
Emotional Contagion

Empathetic crying

Affect Matching

Recognizing Emotion In Others
recognizing emotion in others20
Social referencing

Visual cliff procedure

Stranger procedure

Novel toy procedure

Mood and behavior are altered

Recognizing Emotion In Others
summary of emotional recognition in others
Empathetic Crying

present at birth

Affect Matching

10 weeks

Visual Discrimination of Facial Expressions

6 weeks - some signs

7 months – well developed

Social Referencing

12 months

Summary of Emotional Recognition in Others
recognizing emotion in self
Reliable behaviors to invite pleasurable experiences (infants)

Labeling of emotional experiences (age 2-3)

Emotional recognition becomes linked with context, goals, and appraisals as one develops

Recognizing Emotion In Self
emotional expression

Facial expressions

Emotion language

Emotional dissemblance

Emotion management (not covered)

Emotional Expression
emotional expression24

Types of Crying

Individual Differences

Emotional Expression
emotional expression25
Facial Expressions

Basic Emotions

Signs versus Symbols


Emotional Expression
basic emotions26
1. Joy/happiness

2. Sadness present from birth

3. Interest/surprise

4. Anger

5. Fear between 2.5 - 7 months

6. Disgust (contempt)

Basic Emotions
emotional language
Labeling emotions and identification of antecedents and consequences develops around age 2 (Bretherton et al, 1985)Emotional Language
emotional dissemblance
Develops around preschool age

Four types





Emotional Dissemblance
summary of emotional expression development chronology
Crying (present from birth)

Facial expressions (birth – 7 months)

Emotion language (2 years)

Emotional dissemblance (2-4 years)

Summary of Emotional Expression Development Chronology
Various emotion skills develop at different ages throughout childhood

Interaction with environment and individual biological differences affect emotional development

Emotional development affects other areas of development

future directions
Course of emotional development

Role of individual differences

Ideal emotional development

Link to later psychopathology

Prevention and treatment

Future Directions
recommended readings denotes class readings
Ablon, S. L., Brown, D., Khantizian, E. J., & Mack, J. E. (Eds.) (1993). Human feelings: Explorations in affect development and meaning. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press.

Bretherton, I., Fritz, J., Zahn-Waxler, C., & Ridgeway, D. (1986). Learning to talk about emotions: A functionalist perspective. Child Development, 57, 529-548.

Campos, J., Mumme, D., Kermoian, R., & Campos, R. (1994). A functionist perspective on the nature of emotion. In N. Fox (Ed.), The development of emotion regulation: Biological and behavioral considerations. Monographs of the Society for Research on Child Development, 59, (2/3, Serial No. 240).

Cornelius, R. R. (1996). The Science of emotion: Research and tradition in the psychology of emotion. Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Ekman, P., & Davison, R. J. (1994). The nature of emotions: Fundamental questions. New York: Oxford University Press.

Ekman, P., Levenson, R. W., & Friesen, W. V. (1983). Autonomic nervous system activity distinguishes among emotions. Science, 221, 1208-1210.

Field, T. M., Woodson, R., Cohen, D., Greenberg, R., Garcia, R., & Collins, K. (1983). Discrimination and imitation of facial expression by term and preterm neonates. Infant Behavior and Development, 6, 485-489.

Feinman, S., & Lewis, M. (1983). Social referencing at ten months: A second-order effect on infants’ responses to strangers. Child Development, 54, 878-887.

*Izard, C. E. (2002). Translating emotion theory and research into preventive interventions. Psychological Bulletin, 128 (5), 796-824.

*Lewis, M. D., & Granic, I. (Eds.) (2000). Emotion, development, and self-organization: Dynamic systems approaches to emotional development. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Russell, J. A. (1995). Facial expression of emotion: What lies beyond minimal universality? Psychological Bulletin, 118, 379-391.

Sroufe, L. A. (1979). Socioemotional development. In J. Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of infant development (pp. 462-516). New York: Wiley.

Recommended Readings* denotes class readings