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PSY 552 Social Development Emotional Development Heather Foran October 21, 2004. Definitions of Emotion Emotional Development. Two Topics In Emotion Study. Definitions of Emotion. Function and structure Two dimensions Basic emotions Social emotions Love?
Heather ForanOctober 21, 2004
- Ekman et al. (5 cultures)
- Izard (9 cultures)
- match emotion labels to still photos
High levels of agreement across cultures for some emotions.Evidence for Basic Emotions
Some argue feelings are present at 9 mo
(e.g., Lewis, & Michalson, 1983; Sroufe, 1979).
Not always included in definition of emotion. (e.g., Campos et al. 1994)Feelings?
Many lay defintions
2. Feelings = Emotion, BUT Emotion ≠ Feelings.
Campos et al., 1994 argue that feelings are one facet of emotion
and derive from 4 sources.
Appraisal (Lazarus, 1991)
Efference (e.g., Ekman, et al. 1983)
Striated and Smooth Muscles
Social induction (e.g., McIntosh, et al. 1994)Feelings Defined
Labeling of emotional experiences (age 2-3)
Emotional recognition becomes linked with context, goals, and appraisals as one developsRecognizing Emotion In Self
Facial expressions (birth – 7 months)
Emotion language (2 years)
Emotional dissemblance (2-4 years)Summary of Emotional Expression Development Chronology
Interaction with environment and individual biological differences affect emotional development
Emotional development affects other areas of developmentSummary
Bretherton, I., Fritz, J., Zahn-Waxler, C., & Ridgeway, D. (1986). Learning to talk about emotions: A functionalist perspective. Child Development, 57, 529-548.
Campos, J., Mumme, D., Kermoian, R., & Campos, R. (1994). A functionist perspective on the nature of emotion. In N. Fox (Ed.), The development of emotion regulation: Biological and behavioral considerations. Monographs of the Society for Research on Child Development, 59, (2/3, Serial No. 240).
Cornelius, R. R. (1996). The Science of emotion: Research and tradition in the psychology of emotion. Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Ekman, P., & Davison, R. J. (1994). The nature of emotions: Fundamental questions. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ekman, P., Levenson, R. W., & Friesen, W. V. (1983). Autonomic nervous system activity distinguishes among emotions. Science, 221, 1208-1210.
Field, T. M., Woodson, R., Cohen, D., Greenberg, R., Garcia, R., & Collins, K. (1983). Discrimination and imitation of facial expression by term and preterm neonates. Infant Behavior and Development, 6, 485-489.
Feinman, S., & Lewis, M. (1983). Social referencing at ten months: A second-order effect on infants’ responses to strangers. Child Development, 54, 878-887.
*Izard, C. E. (2002). Translating emotion theory and research into preventive interventions. Psychological Bulletin, 128 (5), 796-824.
*Lewis, M. D., & Granic, I. (Eds.) (2000). Emotion, development, and self-organization: Dynamic systems approaches to emotional development. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Russell, J. A. (1995). Facial expression of emotion: What lies beyond minimal universality? Psychological Bulletin, 118, 379-391.
Sroufe, L. A. (1979). Socioemotional development. In J. Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of infant development (pp. 462-516). New York: Wiley.Recommended Readings* denotes class readings