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Scientific Method. Biotechnology II. Scientific Method. Process by which scientists have collectively agreed to conduct research Tries to remove personal bias and prejudice The conclusion should hold up irrespective of state of mind, religious persuasion, or personal bias. Scientific Inquiry.

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Scientific method

Scientific Method

Biotechnology II

Scientific method1
Scientific Method

  • Process by which scientists have collectively agreed to conduct research

    • Tries to remove personal bias and prejudice

  • The conclusion should hold up irrespective of state of mind, religious persuasion, or personal bias

Scientific inquiry
Scientific Inquiry

  • Purpose: why the experiment is being done or what have you observed

  • Research

  • Hypothesis: your educated guess about what the outcome will be

  • Experiment: design with variables

  • Analysis

  • Conclusion

Testing your hypothesis
Testing your Hypothesis

  • Testing is done to prove or disprove the hypothesis

  • Experiments may test the theory directly or they may test for consequences derived from the theory using math and logic

    • Example: rate of radioactive decay

    • They can observational or experimental

  • All theories must be able to be tested or they do not qualify as scientific theories

Errors in experiments
Errors in Experiments

  • Random Errors: errors which have equal probability of producing a higher or lower result

    • Instrument error is an example

  • Non Random Errors: systematic error which causes a bias in one direction in the results

    • Operator error such as not using a blank in a spectrophotometer will skew all of your data in one direction

  • Sources of Error go in your Results section of your research paper.

Procedure for scientific experiment
Procedure for Scientific Experiment

  • Plan

    • Write a step by step plan of what you will do

    • Start with your research question, hypothesis and material list

    • Visualize yourself doing it while you write

  • Research Question: write it using independent and dependent variables.

    • What effect does (independent) have on (dependent)

Procedure for scientific experiment1
Procedure for Scientific Experiment

  • Hypothesis

    • Guess what you think the result will be. WRITE it down. Explain why.

  • Materials: describe in detail all the materials required including quantities

Procedure for scientific experiment2
Procedure for Scientific Experiment

  • Detailed Experimental Plan

    • Setup of materials and equipment

    • Independent variable – explain exactly what you will change and how you will change it

    • Constant – explain exactly how you kept all other variables constant

    • Controls – what standard or control will you use to determine if changes have occurred. Control groups are untreated if this is a drug experiment.

    • Dependent variable – explain exactly what will probably change because you changed the independent variable

    • Trials – explain how many times you will conduct this experiment

Procedure for scientific experiment3
Procedure for Scientific Experiment

  • Detailed Experimental Plan

    • Data Chart – create a chart to record results. You need at least 3 trials for each change of the independent variable.

    • Do the Experiment – EXACTLY as planned. You MUST record any changes and REWRITE your plan so others can follow what you did EXACTLY

    • Repeated Trials – repeat your work to verify results

    • Log – record everything in your lab notebook

    • Pictures – draw pictures or take pictures where possible

Procedure for scientific experiment4
Procedure for Scientific Experiment

  • Conclusion

    • Results with Explanation and Evidence Summary – summarize your data; do you accept or reject your hypothesis and why?

    • Possible Errors – what could have affected your results?

    • Practical Applications – how can your conclusion apply to the real world?

Writing a scientific paper
Writing a Scientific Paper

  • Sections in a scientific paper

    • Introduction

    • Materials and Methods

    • Results

    • Discussions

    • Literature cited

Scientific method lab
Scientific Method Lab


    • This is an online interactive lab which is a good overview and would be worthwhile reviewing as a class after the basic lecture material.


    • Fermentation lab could be done