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Accident Recording, Reporting and Investigation. Leigh Simmonds BA(Hons) DipNEBOSH CMIOSH MIIRSM MIMSPA Principal Health and Safety Officer. 17 November 2011. CHILDREN’S & ADULTS’ SERVICES. Objectives. Define the principles of accidents and near misses.

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Accident Recording, Reporting and Investigation

Leigh SimmondsBA(Hons) DipNEBOSH CMIOSH MIIRSM MIMSPAPrincipal Health and Safety Officer

17 November 2011


  • Define the principles of accidents and near misses.
  • State when and how to report an accident/incident including RIDDOR reporting.
  • Identify steps for carrying out an accident investigation.

An undesired event that results in harm to people, damage to property or loss to process.

International Loss Control Institute

incident or near miss
Incident or Near Miss

An undesired event that, under different circumstances, could have resulted in harm to people, loss to process or damage to plant.

International Loss Control Institute (Near Miss)

categories of accident
Categories of Accident
  • No injury – no property damage
  • No injury – property damage
  • Injury – no property damage
  • Injury and property damage

Only categories 3 and 4 tend to be reported and investigated in many organisations.

bird triangle
Bird Triangle


Major injuries


> 3 day injuries


Minor injuries


Near misses

accident prevention reasons
Accident Prevention Reasons
  • Death
  • Disability
  • Pain/suffering
  • Stress & anxiety
  • Impact on family and friends
  • Reduced workforce morale
accident prevention reasons1
Accident Prevention Reasons
  • Prosecutions/fines/jail
  • Costs resulting from prohibition notices
  • Legal fees
  • Increased insurance premiums
  • Repair costs
  • Staff replacement costs
costs of accidents accident iceberg accident iceberg
Costs of Accidents – Accident IcebergAccident Iceberg


Insured costs

£8 - £36

Uninsured costs

The Cost of Accidents at Work – HSG 96

costs of accidents
Costs of Accidents
  • Insured costs
  • Injury – Employers Liability insurance
  • Public liability
  • Fire insurance
  • Damage to vehicles, plant, buildings etc.
  • Illness
costs of accidents1
Costs of Accidents
  • Uninsured costs
  • Product/material damage
  • Tool/equipment damage
  • Legal costs
  • Site clearance
  • Production delays
  • Additional labour/overtime
costs of accidents2
Costs of Accidents

Uninsured costs

  • Investigation time
  • Clerical effort
  • Fines
  • Loss of expertise
  • Loss of experienced workers
  • Damage to company image/reputation
accident facts
Accident Facts

On average 245 people die at work each year.

  • 30,000 serious work place injuries happen each year.
  • 38.5 million work days are lost each year due to work place injuries.
  • 25,000 people leave the work force every year never to return due harm suffered at work.

70% of incidents are preventable by good management.

costs of accidents3
Costs of Accidents
  • Poor safety management costs the country £16 billion per year (2–3% of GDP).
  • The above equates to £200 per employee.
  • Three in ten organisations have no H&S budget.
  • 1/3 of all organisations have managers who fail to appreciate the importance of H&S.

British Safety Council Survey

the costs of accidents at work hsg96


Annualised Loss


Construction site


Oil platform


Transport company






8.5% of tender price

1.4% of operating costs

14.2% of potential output

 5% of running costs

37% of profits

The Costs of Accidents at Work (HSG96)
  • Accidents cannot be prevented
  • We don’t have many accident
  • Safety is expensive
  • We are insured anyway
the cost of accidents
The Cost of Accidents

“If you think health and safety is expensive, try having an accident”

Sir Stelios Haji-loannou

Founder and ex CEO easyjet

causes of workplace accidents
Causes of workplace accidents
  • Pure chance theory
  • Biased liability theory
  • Accident proneness theory
  • Domino theory
  • Multi-causation theory
accident causation heinrich
Accident causation - Heinrich
  • 888% caused by unsafe acts or omissions
  • 110% by mechanical failure or physical conditions
  • 22% by Acts of God
updated domino theory bird loftus
Updated Domino Theory(Bird & Loftus)

Lack of






Unsafe acts,


or conditions


Injury, damage

near miss

Emphasis on management failure rather than individual failure

multicausation theory tree
Multicausation Theory (Tree)












unsafe acts omissions
Unsafe Acts / Omissions
  • Operating without authority
  • Using faulty equipment
  • Failing to follow instructions
  • Horseplay
  • Failure to use PPE
  • Operating at unsafe speed
unsafe conditions
Unsafe Conditions
  • Inadequate/missing guarding
  • Poor housekeeping
  • Defective equipment
  • Inadequate lighting
  • Unsuitable/damaged PPE
  • Trip hazards
  • Badly maintained equipment
minor injuries
Minor Injuries
  • All those injuries that do not fall into the major or three day categories are non RIDDOR reportable.
accident investigation
Accident Investigation
  • To find the root & underlying causes to prevent a re-occurrence.
  • Not to apportion blame.
  • No legal requirement to investigate accidents.
4 steps of an investigation
4 steps of an Investigation
  • Gathering the information
  • Analysing the information
  • Identifying risk control measures
  • The action plan and its implementation
site visit equipment
Site Visit - Equipment
  • Report form/check list
  • Notebook and pens
  • Tape recorder
  • Measuring tape
  • Cameras - instant/35mm/digital
  • Sample containers
  • Specialist equipment e.g. Draeger tubes, decibel meter
interviewing witnesses
Interviewing Witnesses
  • Use a non-threatening place for the interview.
  • Put the witness at ease.
  • Explain clearly the purpose of the interview.
  • Ask easy, open questions which do not lead.
  • Ask what happened and listen without interruption.
  • Separate fact from opinion.
  • Be considerate tolerant and patient!
  • Close the interview by explaining what will happen next.
  • Make notes and ask for signature at end of interview.
riddor 1995

Reporting of


Diseases and




what you need to know about riddor
What you need to know about RIDDOR
  • If you are an employer, or are in control of work premises or employees, you have a duty under RIDDOR.
  • You have a duty to report some work related accidents, diseases and dangerous occurrences.
  • Reporting some Accidents and ill Health at work is a legal responsibility.
when do i make a report
When do I make a report?

If there is an accident / incident connected with work and involves one of the following:

  • Death or Major Injury
  • Over three day injury causing absence from work
  • Notification of work related disease
  • Dangerous occurrence
death or major injury
Death or Major Injury
  • An employee, or a self-employed person working on your premises is:
    • killed
    • Suffers a major injury (including physical violence).
  • A member of the public is killed or taken to hospital (due to your acts or omissions).
over 3 day injury
Over 3 Day Injury

An over three day injury is one which is not a major injury but results in the injured person being away from work or unable to complete his / her full range of normal duties.

  • NNot counting day of injury, all other days which include days not normally worked including weekends.
non consensual violence
Non-consensual Violence
  • Resulting in death, major injury or more than 3 day injury.
  • In connection with work
  • Reportable
injuries to non employees
Injuries to non-employees

You need to report an accident that happens to

someone who is not at work, eg a pupil or visitor, if:

  • the person involved is killed or taken to hospital;
  • and
  • the accident arises out of or in connection with the work activity.
injuries to non employees1
Injuries to non-employees

An accident will be reportable if it is attributable to:

  • work organisation (eg the supervision of a field trip);
  • plant or substances (eg lifts, machinery, experiments etc);
  • the condition of the premises.

Accidents and incidents that happen in relation to

curriculum sports activities and result in pupils being

killed or taken to hospital for treatment are reportable

reportable diseases
Reportable Diseases
  • Report in writing within 10 days using form F2508A
  • Diseases listed in RIDDOR 1995
  • Common reportable diseases include occupational dermatitis or asthma
reportable diseases1
Reportable Diseases
  • Examples
  • Various WRULDs e.g. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, Hand-arm Vibration Syndrome.
  • Biological infections e.g. Hepatitis, Tetanus, Legionellosis
  • Poisoning e.g by arsenic or lead
  • Cancers
dangerous occurrences
Dangerous Occurrences
  • Report by quickest practicable means followed by F2508 within 10 days (via ICC)
  • Gas incidents use form F2508G
  • Balfour Beatty tunnel collapse at Heathrow resulting in fine in excess of £1.2 million
dangerous occurrences1
Dangerous Occurrences


  • Collapse of a crane or hoist
  • Overturning of a fork lift truck
  • Failure of a pressure system
  • Fire/explosion from an electrical short circuit
  • Collapse of a scaffold
  • Major gas leak
  • Collapse of a building
how to report an accident or incident
How to report an Accident or Incident

All accidents can be reported online at but a telephone service remains for reporting fatalities and major injuries only. Call the incident contact centre on 0845 300 9923