Population Ecology I—
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Population Ecology I— Population structure and distribution; life-history trade-offs and reproductive strategies. Opening photo, Unit 2. Cain et al. (p. 153). Unitary and modular organisms— What is an individual?. Examples of modular organisms—. Fig. 9.1, Smith & Smith, 6 th ed. (p. 187).

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Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Population Ecology I—

Population structure and distribution;

life-history trade-offs and reproductive strategies

Opening photo, Unit 2. Cain et al. (p. 153)


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Unitary and modular organisms—

What is an individual?


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Examples of modular organisms—

Fig. 9.1, Smith & Smith, 6th ed. (p. 187)

A quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) genet

A shoal grass (Halodule beaudettei) genet


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Photo by Loraine Yeatts


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Photo by Loraine Yeatts


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Fig. 9.2, Smith & Smith 6th ed. (p. 188)


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Two examples of modularity in animals—

Clones of (a) a coral and (b) a sponge

Fig. 9.3, Smith & Smith 6th ed. (p. 188)

Fig. 9.2, Smith & Smith (5th ed), p. 172



Population ecology i population structure and distribution

  • Most species have relativelysmall geographic ranges—

    • as illustrated by (a) 1,370 spp of North American birds, and (b) 1,499 spp. of British vascular plants.

Fig. 50.27, Campbell & Reece, 6th ed. (p. 1118)


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Geographic range of the red maple (Acer rubrum)

Fig. 9.4, Smith & Smith, 7th ed. (p. 185)


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Geographic range and relative abundance of the Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus)

Fig. 9.5, Smith & Smith, 5th ed. (p. 175)


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

General representation of the (dispersion of individuals in a population within its local distribution (or, range)

Fig. 9.3, Smith & Smith, 7th ed. (p. 185)


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Distribution of the moss ( (Tetraphis pellucida) at several spatial scales

Fig. 9.5, Smith & Smith 7th ed. (p. 186)


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Fig. 9.6, Smith & Smith (5th ed), p. 176


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

There’s a kudzu photo in your text (p. 196), but this one is more dramatic.


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

  • Boom-and-bust populations— (

    • Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), scourge of the Eastern deciduous forests of North America (Coming soon to a forest near you??)

Fig. 1 (Ch. 9), Smith & Smith 6th ed. (p. 201)


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

  • Boom-and-bust populations— (

    • Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), scourge of the Eastern deciduous forests of North America (Coming soon to a forest near you??)

Fig. 1 (Ch. 9), Smith & Smith 6th ed. (p. 201)


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

  • Boom-and-bust populations— (

    • Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), scourge of the Eastern deciduous forests of North America (Coming soon to a forest near you??)

Temporal and spatial changes in population distribution of gypsy moth.

Fig. 9.17, Smith & Smith 7th ed. (p. 194)


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Fig. 9.8, Smith & Smith 6th ed. (p. 191)


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Fig. 52.2, Campbell & Reece (6th ed)


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Fig. 9.9, Smith & Smith 6th ed. (p. 192)


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Fig. 9.10, Smith & Smith 6th ed. (p. 192)


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Why all the clumping? (

Fig. 52.1, Campbell & Reece, 6th ed. (p.


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Age structure (and recruitment?) in an oak ( (Quercus) population in Sussex, England

Fig. 9.15, Smith & Smith 6th ed. (p. 198)


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Reproductive Strategies: (Life-history trade-offs in patterns of reproduction

Opening photo for Ch. 8 in Smith & Smith 7th ed. (p. 158)


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Precocity vs. delay— (

Precocious reproduction in dandelion (Taraxacum officinale)

What ecological circumstances might favor each of these strategies?

Delayed reproduction in red oak (Quercus rubra)


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Semelparity vs. iteroparity— (

Fig. 52.6, Campbell & Reece 7th ed. (p. 1141)

  • Agave (Agave sp.)—

    • a semelparous plant

What ecological circumstances might favor each of these strategies?

  • Sugar maple (Acer saccharum)—

    • an iteroparous plant


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Semelparity vs. iteroparity— (

Fig. 7.11, Cain et al. (p. 162)

  • Agave (Agave sp.)—

    • a semelparous plant?


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Fecundity vs. parental care— (

What ecological circumstances might favor each of these strategies?

Fig. 52.8, Campbell & Reece 7th ed. (p. 1142)

a. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale): High fecundity, little “parental care” per individual embryo.

What animal species have life-histories characterized by these strategies and the ones in the preceding slides?

b. Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera): Much lower fecundity, much greater parental investment in each embryo.


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Contrasting life history strategies in two salamander species with overlapping ranges

Left: spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum)

Fig. 8.17, Smith & Smith, 7th ed (p. 176)

Right: redback salamander (Plethodon cinereus)


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Fig. 7.15, Cain et al. (p. 165)


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Fig. 8.12, Smith & Smith, 7th ed (p. 170)


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Fig. 7.14, Cain et al. (p. 165)

Fig. 52.7, Campbell & Reece 7th ed. (p. 1142)


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Fig. 52.7, Campbell & Reece 7th ed. (p. 1142)


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Fig. 52.5, Campbell & Reece 6th ed. (p. 1157)


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Fig. 8.13, Smith & Smith, 7th ed. (p. 171)


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Fig. 8.13, Smith & Smith, 7th ed. (p. 171)


Population ecology i population structure and distribution


Population ecology i population structure and distribution

Using mark-recapture sampling to estimate animal populations populations—

  • Imagine you are studying a particular species of fish, and there is a population of 10,000 of these fish living in a lake; so N = 10,000 individuals—but you don’t know this!

  • You capture 250 of fish and mark them in some way so that you will know if you catch them again in the future; so M = 250 fish, and the proportion of marked individuals in the population is

    • But you don’t know this, either!!

  • Now imagine you allow those marked fish to mix in with the population again, and then you capture another batch. This time you catch 360 fish; so C = 360 fish.

  • Based on the ratio of M to N (0.025), how many of those 360 individuals would you expect to be “recaptures”—i.e., fish that you marked in the first capture?


  • Population ecology i population structure and distribution

    Using mark-recapture sampling to estimate animal populations populations—

    where,

    N = population

    M = number of individuals marked in initial trapping

    C = number of individuals captured in census trapping

    R = number of marked individuals recaptured in census trapping


    Population ecology i population structure and distribution

    Using mark-recapture sampling to estimate animal populations populations—

    • After rearranging to solve for N, this becomes:

    • Example:

      • Imagine you capture and mark 150 fish in a lake. (This must be a random, representative sample.)

      • You release them back into the lake, allowing enough time for them to remix with the population.

      • You then trap another 220 fish, of which 25 are recaptures (i.e., marked from the initial trapping).

      • What is your estimate of the total population of fish in the lake?