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Global trends of neonatal, infant and child mortality: implications for child survival. Dr KANUPRIYA CHATURVEDI Dr S.K CHATURVEDI. When are child deaths occurring?. The 10.6 million annual child deaths are not distributed evenly over the 0-4 year age period

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global trends of neonatal infant and child mortality implications for child survival

Global trends of neonatal, infant and child mortality: implications for child survival

Dr KANUPRIYA CHATURVEDI

Dr S.K CHATURVEDI

when are child deaths occurring
When are child deaths occurring?
  • The 10.6 million annual child deaths are not distributed evenly over the 0-4 year age period
  • More than 70% of all child deaths occur in the first year of life
  • And of these … nearly 40% occur in the first month of life (the neonatal period)
where are child deaths occurring
Where are child deaths occurring?
  • Only 2 WHO regions account for more than 70% of all under-five deaths:

42% in the African region

29% in South-east Asia region

  • Only 6 countries account for 50% of all child deaths (2002 data):

India (Sear)

Nigeria (Afr)

China (Wpr)

Pakistan (Emr)

Ethiopia (Afr)

DR Congo (Afr)

what are under fives dying of excluding neonatal causes of death
What are under-fives dying of?(excluding neonatal causes of death)
  • Pneumonia
  • Diarrhoea
  • Malaria
  • Measles
  • HIV/AIDS

}

~ 50%

Malnutrition contributes to more than half of all under-five deaths

what are neonates dying of
What are neonates dying of?
  • Preterm births
  • Severe infection
  • Asphyxia
  • Congenital anomalies
  • Tetanus

}

~ 75%

p rogress has been variable
Progress has been variable
  • Neonatal mortality has fallen at a lower rate than post-neonatal or early child mortality
  • Relatively greater progress has been made in some regions and countries

e.g. neonatal mortality is now 58% lower in high income countries than in 1983, compared to 14% reduction in low/ middle income countries

  • Large variations in mortality rates exist even within the same country
solutions exist
Solutions exist….
  • Skilled care: skilled care during pregnancy, childbirth and in the post-natal period
  • Infant feeding:exclusive breastfeeding, complementary feeding and micronutrients
  • Vital vaccines:measles and tetanus immunization and other conventional and new vaccines
  • Combating diarrhoea:low osmolarity ORS and zinc in case management of diarrhoea, antibiotics for dysentery
  • Treating pneumonia and newborn sepsis:prompt treatment withappropriate antibiotics

Where appropriate:

  • Combating malaria
  • Preventing and caring for HIV (mother and child)
delivery strategies tools exist

MPS

Skilled care

IMCI

NUT

Infant feeding

Vital vaccines

EPI

Combating diarrhoea

Antibiotics for pneumonia

RBM

Combating malaria

Combating HIV

HIV

Delivery strategies/tools exist

Community

IMCI – Integrated Management of Childhood Illness

MPS – Making Pregnancy Safer

NUT - Nutrition

RBM – Roll Back Malaria

EPI – Expanded Programme on Immunization

achievement of the mdg 4 5 constitutes a particular challenge
Achievement of the MDG 4 & 5constitutes a particular challenge
  • 57 countries:likely to reduce child mortality by 2/3 (1990-2015) but still intra-country disparities
  • 16 countries: retrogression/significant increase in child mortality
  • Progress slow/stagnating in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia
  • 42 countries account for 90% of all child deaths
  • Over 1 billion children severely deprived of basic health & other social services  Linked to Poverty, Conflict and HIV
india s share of the global burden of births child deaths
India’s share of the global burden of births & child deaths
  • Live births ~ 20%
  • Child deaths ~ 20%
  • Infant deaths ~ 24%
  • Neonatal deaths ~ 30%
neonatal post neonatal and early child mortality in indian states
Neonatal, post-neonatal and early child mortality in Indian states

Source: National Family Health Survey, 1998-9

solutions exist14
SOLUTIONS EXIST
  • A mix of community and facility-based interventions
  • A mix of integrated child health approaches
  • Integrated management of neonatal and child hood illnesses is proven tool
goals of im n ci
Goals of IMNCI
  • Standardized case management of sick newborns and children
  • Focus on the most common causes of mortality
  • Nutrition assessment and counselling for all sick infants and children
  • Home care for newborns to
    • promote exclusive breastfeeding
    • prevent hypothermia
    • improve illness recognition & timely care seeking
essential components of imnci
Essential components of IMNCI
  • Improve health and nutrition workers’ skills
  • Improve health systems
  • Improve family and community practices
imnci india major adaptations
IMNCI-INDIA-Major Adaptations
  • The entire 0-5 year period covered including the first week of life
  • 50% of training time for management of young infants (0-2 months)
  • The order of training reversed; now begins with management of young infants
  • Reduced training duration (8 days), separate training materials for physicians & health workers
  • Management now consistent with current policies of MoHFW, DWCD,IYCF,PD & NAMP
  • Home-based care of young infants by health workers added
potential of the adapted imnci package
Potential of the adapted IMNCI Package
  • Accelerating the reduction in infant and child mortality in both rural and urban areas, particularly by its impact on neonatal mortality through home and facility based care
  • Lower burden on hospitals, particularly in urban areas where access to care is not a limiting factor
  • The package has been organized in a way that states with low post-neonatal infant mortality can use 0-2 month training material only
home visits for young infants objectives
Home visits for young infants: Objectives
  • Promote & support exclusive breastfeeding
  • Teach the mother how to keep the young infant warm
  • Teach the mother to recognize signs of illness for which to seek care
  • Identify illness at visit and facilitate referral
  • Give advise on cord care and hand washing
home visits for young infants schedule
Home visits for young infants: Schedule
  • All newborns: 3 visits (within 24 hours of birth, day 3-4 and day 7-10)
  • Newborns with low birth weight: 3 more visits on day 14, 21 and 28.
imnci colour coded case management strategy
IMNCIColour Coded Case Management Strategy
  • RED CLASSIFICATION: Child needs Drugs & inpatient care –Mostly serious infections
  • YELLOW CLASSIFICATION: Child needs specific treatment, (e.g. antibiotics, anti-malarial, ORT) for Mild infections can be Provided at home / community level
  • GREEN CLASSIFICATION: Child needs no medicine, advise home care
other innovations in case assessment
Other innovations in case assessment
  • Visible severe wasting as indicator for hospital admission rather than weight for age
  • Palmar pallor to detect anaemia
  • Breast feeding assessment: attachment and suckling
innovations in therapy
Innovations in therapy
  • Single daily dose gentamycin
  • How to treat at home when hospital admission is not feasible
  • Counselling the mother to give oral drugs at home
  • Clear recommendations for follow up
  • Negotiated feeding counselling
what does imnci not provide at all or fully
What does IMNCI not provide at all or fully
  • Antenatal care
  • Skilled birth attendance
  • Birth asphyxia management
  • Improved health system management
  • What can be rapidly added to IMNCI
  • Inpatient care modules for first level referral hospitals
imnci experience milestones
IMNCI Experience--Milestones
  • Early 2002, GOI constituted an Adaptation Group
  • In joint GOI-UNICEF review meeting in April 2002 GOI requested to experiment IMNCI in BDCS districts
  • July 2002, First national 2 days planning meeting
  • December 2002, pre-tested 8-days physician course material
  • Early 2003 - adaptation of H&N workers module
  • May 2003 – First field testing in Osmanabad followed by one in Shivpuri & content & methodology frozen
  • Implementation started in Andoor PHC, Osmanabad in June 03 followed by Valsad district
  • Follow-up training of supervisors in April 04 in Osmanabad
  • Field trial for case registers initiated in late 2004
  • Physicians courses from 2005 included community visit, facilitation technique and briefing on Health workers’ course
  • First Facilitation technique course in Orissa in June 2005
training flow
Training Flow

Training of 6-8/district ToTs in Delhi

1 month

District Doctors Trg

2 HNT training

Implementation

2 wks

1 month

2 Facilitators

from Delhi

1-2 months

State/Dist. H&ICDS TOT

Follow up training

Subsequent HNT/

Supervisors TOT/FTT

2 Facilitators from State Pool

2 Facilitators

from Delhi

training strengths contents doable
Training: Strengths -- Contents Doable
  • 50% of training time for management of young infants (0-2 months)
  • Visible severe wasting as indicator for hospital admission rather than weight for age
  • Palmar pallor to detect anaemia
  • Breast feeding assessment: attachment and suckling
  • Immunization and micronutrient assessment & referring
  • How to treat at home when hospitalization not feasible
  • Counselling the mother to give oral drugs at home
  • Clear recommendations for follow up
  • Negotiated feeding counselling
  • Specific advices for home care including identification of danger signs
  • Management consistent with current policies of the MoHFW, DWCD and NVBDCP
training limitations contents
Training Limitations: Contents
  • Does not provideMNC through
    • Antenatal care
    • Skilled birth attendance
    • Birth Asphyxia Management
  • Inpatient care modules for first level referral hospitals to be developed
  • No specific inputs for Improved health system management
  • Drug logistic- specially formulations dependant on SC/PHC RCH supplies
key messages
Key messages
  • Maternal and newborn care and support is essential to achieve a substantial reduction in neonatal mortality
  • Improving child survival requires coordinated action between maternal and child health, and other programme areas (e.g. EPI, NUT, RBM, HIV)
  • IMCI is an effective delivery strategy for multiple child survival interventions (India has already incorporated newborn care)
  • For substantive impact, strong community component must accompany the health system strengthening