tuesday february 14 2011
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Tuesday, February 14, 2011. Tonight’s Topic Communication Basics. Why is Communication So Difficult?. People don’t see the world in the same way. Definition of Communication. Process of establishing common understanding.

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tuesday february 14 2011
Tuesday, February 14, 2011

Tonight’s Topic

Communication Basics

why is communication so difficult
Why is Communication So Difficult?
  • People don’t see the world in the same way.
definition of communication
Definition of Communication
  • Process of establishing common understanding.
  • Process of sharing thoughts, ideas and feelings with each other in commonly understandable ways.
all business communication has 3 basic purposes
All business communication has 3 basic purposes
  • To inform (explain)
  • To request or persuade (urge action)
  • To build goodwill (make good image)
  • Most messages have more than one purpose
for your consideration
For Your Consideration…….
  • Consider a situation in which you have experienced a communication breakdown.
  • What factors were responsible for the miscommunication?
  • What could have been done to assure successful communication?
what is success in communications
What is Success in Communications?
  • Success = results you want, when you want them.
  • Evaluate feedback you get …
    • If message fails, find out why
    • If message succeeds, find out why
the communication process
The Communication Process


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The Communication Process



the communication process9
The Communication Process




the communication process10
The Communication Process





the communication process11
The Communication Process






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The Communication Process
    • The person who is sending the message
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The Communication Process

1. Formulating the message

2. Choosing the appropriate symbols to use

3. Choosing the correct channel


1. Formulating the message.


2. Choosing the Appropriate Symbols

  • Language used, such as English, jargon, sign, code etc.
  • Paralanguage - vocal elements, such as tone, pitch, rate, emphasis, etc.
  • Non-verbal - intentional or unintentional means of sending a message other than through writing or speaking - not just a hand gesture - appearance, posture, arrival time, eye contact

3. Choosing the Appropriate Channels

  • Media is a channel or mechanism for transmitting information or messages from point to point.
  • Each form of communication - each medium - conveys a message.

For example, a cheap medium such as a handwritten note

or a cheap photocopy might say what to the recipient?

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The Communication Process
  • This message isn't very important - if it were I would have presented it more formally.
  • You are not important enough for a phone call.
  • I am too busy to convey this message personally
  • The matter is so urgent - the sender had to sacrifice professionalism
  • This is routine information that you will readily understand.
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The Communication Process

Other types of media include:

  • Written: memo, letter, proposal
  • Oral: phone, in person, video conferencing
  • Electronic: voice mail, email, fax, television, radio, videoconferencing
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The Communication Process
  • Urgency of Feedback
  • Relationship of person to whom you are addressing
  • Need for documentation
  • Efficiency vs. Effectiveness

Some Criteria for Choosing Your Medium:

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The Communication Process

Use Face to Face (Oral) When:

  • Immediate feedback needed
  • Permanent record not needed
  • Exact wording is not important
  • Topic is emotional or complex
  • Confidence or trust needs developing
  • Convenient or economical to assemble audience
  • Nonverbal cues are needed
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The Communication Process

Send Written Messages When:

  • Immediate feedback is not needed
  • Message takes time to compose and deliver
  • Permanent record is needed
  • Exact wording is important
  • Follow-up to face to face is needed
  • Content is more important than feelings
  • Audience is large and dispersed
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The Communication Process

Send Electronic Message When:

  • Immediate feedback not needed
  • Speed is important
  • Explicit message - little interpretation needed - Don't get too detailed on an e-mail
  • Information needed to support face to face mtg
  • Speed, cost and convenience is crucial
  • Audience is large and dispersed
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The Communication Process

Use Mass Media when:

  • Newspaper
  • Radio
  • Television
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The Communication Process
  • In verbal communication, there is often discussion between communication effectiveness vs. efficiency.
  • Efficiency is how inexpensive it costs to send a message - Effectiveness is how successfully the message was communicated.
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The Communication Process


  • Assign meaning to what was just heard
  • Consider the frame of reference, such as educational background, race, sex, where the person grew up, what their parents were like, past experiences
  • Decoding requires empathy
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The Communication Process


  • Fidelity is the quality of a reproduction.
  • The Goal of Communication is to ensure that a message is reproduced as honestly as possible.
  • The level of fidelity varies depending upon the importance of the message.
  • In communication, one must determine the level of fidelity necessary to ensure all information is received and understood.
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The Communication Process


  • Any interruption in the communication process. Examples of noise include decibel level, sleep deprivation, biases --- anything that interferes with the flow of information
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The Communication Process


  • Important when delivering a message or creating a “spin.”
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The Communication Process


  • Feedback refers to verbal and visual responses to messages.
    • Usually, the sender expects a certain type of response, depending upon the message. Once the message is delivered, sender analyzes the response based on his expectations.
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The Communication Process

Difficulties with Feedback

  • Causes people to feel under attack. May feel that feedback feels negative. Should be more concerned with no feedback.
  • Feedback is difficult to elicit - Many people seek feedback by asking - Are there any questions? or Do you understand?
  • Feedback is time consuming. If you don't have time to do the job correctly the first time, where will you find the time to do it correctly the second time.
  • Some are reluctant to speak because of previous negatives experiences.