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Personality and Prejudice: Traits, Values and Attitudes toward Immigration Gian Vittorio Caprara Michele Vecchione “Sapi PowerPoint Presentation
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Personality and Prejudice: Traits, Values and Attitudes toward Immigration Gian Vittorio Caprara Michele Vecchione “Sapienza” University of Rome . Centro Interuniversitario per la Ricerca sulla Genesi e sullo Sviluppo delle Motivazioni Prosociali e Antisociali . Padova, October 2008.

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slide1

Personality and Prejudice:

Traits, Values and Attitudes toward Immigration

Gian Vittorio Caprara

Michele Vecchione

“Sapienza” University of Rome

Centro Interuniversitario per la Ricerca sulla Genesi e

sullo Sviluppo delle Motivazioni Prosociali e Antisociali

Padova, October 2008

slide3

Personality traits

  • Traits are enduring tendencies to behave in habitual ways associated to consistent patterns of thought and feelings
  • They describe what people are likeand vary in the frequency and intensity of their occurrence
slide4

Values

  • Values are cognitive representations of desirable, abstract, transituational goals that serve as guiding principlesin people’s lives
  • They refer to what people consider importantand vary in their priority as standards for judging behaviour, events, and people
slide5

The Five Factor Model

In the domain of traits, many researchers agree that most of personality’sbehavioral tendenciesand descriptors can be traced back to five basic factors, the so-called Big Five, which capture the essential features of all traits

slide6

Values

In the domain of values, Schwartz has provided a theory that has paved the way forsystematic studiesand comparisons among countries on the impact that values exert on various domains of functioning

slide7

SCHWARTZ ‘S VALUES SYSTEM (1992)

SELF-TRASCENDENCE

OPENNESS

TO CHANGE Self- Universalism

Direction

Stimulation

Benevolence

Hedonism

Conformity

Tradition

Achievement

Security

Power

SELF-ENHANCEMENT

CONSERVATION

  • SCHWARTZ, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology, 25, 1–65.
slide8

Traits and Values

  • Although traits and values are rooted in different intellectual traditions, they are closely related to each other
  • In the domain of politics, both traits and values have proved to affect political preferences beyond traditional socio-demographic variables, like age, gender, education, and income
  • Basic values have proved to fully mediate the influence of traits
slide9

1998 2004 2004

Conscien-tiousness

R2 = .26

.68

Security

.62

-.30

.28

R2 = .18

Openness

.44

.27

Ideology

.36

-.43

.58

Universalism

.16

Ideology: 1=extreme left; 2=left; 3=center-left; 4=center; 5=center-right; 6=right; 7=extreme right

Agreeable-ness

R2 = .23

Underlined coefficients are not significant.

  • CAPRARA, G. V., & VECCHIONE, M. (in press). The mediational role of values in linking traits to political orientation. Asian Journal of Social Psychology
slide10

Values and Attitudes toward Immigration

  • Previous findings from a study on 19 European countries have shown that self-transcendence displays a positive effect on support for immigration, whereas conservation displays a negative effect
  • These results are robust also after accounting for several individual and contextual variables
  • Effects are found to be similar across countries
  • Davidov, E., Meuleman, B., Billiet, J., & Schmidt, P. (2008). Values and Support for Immigration: A Cross-Country
  • Comparison, European Sociological Review, 1-17.
slide11

Hypotheses

  • We expected that both traits (openness) and values(self-transcendence and conservation) would account for a significant portion ofvariability in attitudes toward immigration
slide12

Hypotheses

  • Previous findings have shown that openness is inversely related to authoritarianism (McCrae & Costa, 1997), and positively related to tolerance for diversity, nonconformity (John & Srivastava, 1999) and liberal sociopolitical values (McCrae, 1996)
  • Thus, we expected that openness would be related to a positive attitude toward immigration
slide13

Hypotheses

  • People who give more importance to values that emphasize respect of norms and social expectations, social order and stability (conservation), would be less willing to accept immigrants
  • People who give more importance to values that emphasize tolerance, understanding, and concern for the welfare of all people (self-transcendence), would be more willing to accept immigrants (Sagiv and Schwartz, 1995)
slide14

Hypotheses

  • Ultimately, we hypothesized thatvaluesfully mediatethe influence exerted bytraits
slide15

A scale for measuring

Attitudes toward Immigration

Principal Axis Factoring. Eigenvalues: 1.86, .70, 45

Variance explained: 44.62%

Cronbach’s Alpha = .68

  • Schwartz, S.H., Caprara G.V., Vecchione, M. Basic Values Organize Political Attitudes and Through Them Influence Political Choice: A Longitudinal Analysis. Submitted.
slide16

Correlations Between Big Five and

Accepting Immigrants

BIG FIVE

ACCEPTING IMMIGRANTS

  • ENERGY/EXTRAVERSION .03
  • AGREEABLENESS .23***
  • CONSCIENTIOUSNESS .01
  • EMOTIONAL INSTABILITY .13***
  • OPENNESS .39***

*** p<.001

slide17

Correlations Between Values and

Accepting Immigrants

BASIC VALUES

  • SECURITY -.26***
  • CONFORMISM -.19***
  • TRADITION -.22***
  • BENEVOLENCE .18***
  • UNIVERSALISM .30***
  • SELF-DIRECTION .19***
  • STIMULATION .14***
  • HEDONISM .02
  • ACHIEVEMENT -.07
  • POWER -.11***

ACCEPTING IMMIGRANTS

*** p<.001

slide18

Correlations Between Values and

Accepting Immigrants

HIGHER ORDER VALUES

  • OPENNESS TO CHANGE .19***
  • CONSERVATION -.26***
  • SELF-TRANSCENDENCE .27***
  • SELF-ENHANCEMENT -.10***

ACCEPTING IMMIGRANTS

*** p<.001

slide19

Traits, values, and attitudes toward immigration

Basic Values

χ2=(96)683.82; p<.001; CFI=.918; RMSEA=.061; SRMR=.062

pvq5

pvq14

pvq21

pvq31

pvq35

R2 =.11

Security

R2 =.49

-.63

-.33

Accepting

Immigration

Openness

.28

.42

.61

Universalism

R2 =.18

OC

OE

Item1

Item2

Item3

pvq3

pvq8

pvq19

pvq23

pvq29

pvq40

OC (Openness to culture) and OE (Openness to Experience) are the two facets of Openness in the questionnaire used for measuring traits. All coefficients are statistically significant. The correlation between Security and Benevolence is .46.

slide20

Traits, values, and attitudes toward immigration

Higher-order Values

When estimated, the direct effect of openness is not significant (β=.01,p=.94)

χ2=(30)313.17; p<.001; CFI=.946; RMSEA=.075; SRMR=.048

Sec

Conf

Trad

R2 =.14

Conservation

R2 =.46

-.62

-.37

Immigration

Openness

.46

.67

Self tran-

scendence

R2 =.22

OC

OE

Item1

Item2

Item3

Univ

Ben

OC (Openness to culture) and OE (Openness to Experience) are the two facets of Openness in the questionnaire used for measuring traits. All coefficients are statistically significant. The correlation between Conservation and Self-transcendence is .62.

slide21

Conclusion

  • The influence of traits (openness) is largely indirect and mediated through values
  • Conservation values underlie opposition to immigration, whereas Self-enhancement values underlie willingness to accept immigrants
  • Likely, the trade-off between giving high priority to promoting the welfare of all others and avoiding personal, national, and interpersonal threat, influences readiness to accept immigrants (Schwartz, 2008)