A great scientist Father of Hybrid Rice The man who puts an end to hunger Who is he? What is his achievement?
Quiz 1.Which scientist discovered that objects in water are lifted up by a force that helps them float? 2. Who wrote a book explaining how animals and plants developed as the environment changed? 3. Who invented the first steam engine? 4. Who used peas to show how physical characteristics are passed from parents to their children? 5. Who discovered radium? Archimedes/.a:ki`mi:di:z/ Charles Darwin Thomas Newcomen Gregor Mendel Marie Curie [mз‘ri] [’kjuзri]
Ancient Greek (287-212BC) He was a mathematician(数学家). He found that if you put an object into water, the water pushes the object up. It rises and partly floats. The force of the water pushing it up is the same as the weight of the object. Archimedes
Britain (1808-1882) The Origin of Species Charles Darwin
He made a significant contribution to the Industrial Revolution with his invention of the Steam engine. Thomas Newcomen
Gregor Mendel(G.J.孟德尔 ) Czech (1822-1884) The father of genetics
Marie Curie • Polish and French (1867-1934)
6. Who invented the way of giving electricity to everybody in large cities? 7. Who was the painter that studied dead bodies to improve his painting of people? 8. Who invented a lamp to keep miners safe underground? 9. Who invented the earliest instrument to tell people where earthquakes happened? 10.Who put forward a theory about black holes? Thomas Edison Leonardo da Vinci[liəu'nɑ:dəudə'vintʃi] Sir Humphry Davy Zhang Heng Stephen Hawking
Thomas Edison • American (1847-1931)
Leonardo da Vinci • Italian (1452-1519) Major works: Virgin of the Rocks The Last Supper Mona Lisa
Sir Humphry Davy • British (1778-1829)
Zhang Heng • Chinese (78-139)
Stephen Hawking • British (1942-) • Theoretical Physicist A Brief History of Time
John Snow Defeats “King Cholera” Pre-reading: Make a prediction about what this text will be about according to the title.
John Snow • British ( 1813~ 1858) • a legendary(传说中的) figure in the history of public health,
霍乱(cholera)，早期译作虎烈拉，是由霍乱弧菌所致的烈性肠道传染病(infectious disease) ，解放后我国已消灭本病。霍乱为我国法定的甲级烈性传染病，要求在发现确诊或疑似病例后2小时内上报 Think about other infectious diseases you have known?
Extensive Reading 1.The main idea of the text John Snow defeated “King Cholera” with the help of scientific research 2.Read the whole text and finish exercise 1 in page 3
Scientific Research Basic steps of scientific research 1. Find a problem 2. Make a question 3. Think of a method 4. Collect results 5. Analyse result 6. Find supporting evidence 7. Draw a conclusion Why these steps are necessary for scientific research?
Careful Reading Finish the chart ---------What causes cholera? • Find a problem • 2. Make a question • 3. Think of a method • 4. Collect results • 5. Analyse result • 6. Find supporting • evidence • 7. Draw a conclusion --------Which theory is correct? --------Gather information when another outbreak hit London in 1854 ----------Make a map to find out where people died or did not died ----------Look into the source of water and analyse the water ---------- Find supporting evidence from two other deaths ---------The polluted water carried the virus
Solution • Remove the handle from the pump • The source of all the water be examined • 3.Water companies were instructed not to • exposed people to polluted water anymore.
ExerciseFilling the blanks with useful words and expressions in the text • John Snow was a very expert doctor in London. He thought about ordinary people_____________ cholera. There were two theories he became interested in. One is that cholera________ • in the air, the other is that people __________ this disease into their bodies with their meals. • John Snow_________ that the second theory was correct, and he determined to find out why. First, he marked on a map which gave him a valuable clue that many of the deaths were near the__________ in Broad street. It seemed that the water___________. • Next, John Snow__________the source of the water and found that it came from the river________by the dirty water from London. After that , he found_____________from two deaths. Then he was able to _________with certainty that________ carried the virus. exposed to multiplied absorbed suspected water pump was to blame looked into polluted extra evidence announce the water
Open Question 1. After reading the whole text, what do you think about John Snow? 2. Can you name some other scientists nowadays like John Snow? 3. What do you think they have in common?
Language Points 1.attend vt & vi [ə'tend] ① to be present at an event(出席；参加) ② to take care of sb/sth(照顾；看护) attend on/to sb/sth ③attend to sb/sth n. attendance出席，参加 attendant 服务员，侍者 attender参加者 The meeting was attended by 90% of the shareholders(股东). I have some urgent bussiness to attend to . Attend now to what I tell you 2.expose [iks'pəuz] ①to show sth that is usually hidden(暴露) ②to put sb/sth in a dangerous situation（使暴露在危险之下） expose sb/sth to sth ③使接触，使体验 He smiled suddenly, exposing a set of amazing whith teath. People exposed to SARS should be seperated We should expose ourselves to much art and culture.
3.absorb vt. [əb‘zɔ:b] ① to take in (吸收液体、气体等) ② interest sb(使全神贯注) 词组：be absorbed in被吸引，入迷 Plants absorb oxygen. This work had absorbed him for many years. 4.suspect vt. [səs‘pekt] /n.[ ’sʌ spect] ① to have an idea that sth is probably true (疑 有，觉得) ②to not trust sth(怀疑，感觉有问题，不信任) ③嫌疑犯 a murder suspect John Snow suspected that the second theory was true. I suspected her motives(动机) in offering to help.
5.severe adj. [si'viə] ①extremely bad or serious（非常严重的） ②not kind （严厉的；严格的） adv. severely A severe earthquake hit Wenchuan last year. I think you are too severe on the boy. 6.announce[ə'nauns] vt ① to tell people sth officially (发表、告知、宣布) ② 宣布某人的到来 ③ 显示；预告 The government announced its new economic His servant announced Mr and Mrs White. Warm sunshine announces the coming of spring.
cure: vt./n. ①to make a person or an animal healthy again after an illness(治愈) cure sb of sth ②to make an illness go away(治好) ③a medicine or medical treatment that cures an illness(药，药物) cure for sth Will you be able to cure him, doctor? Cholera, a serious disease caused many deaths in the past, can be cured nowadays. The cure for this disease hasn’t been found yet. Instruct: vt instruct sb to do sth to tell sb to do sth, esp. in a formal or official way n. instruction You will be instructed where to go as soon as the plane is ready. Exercise: Finish exercise 1 and 2 in page 4 in your text book.
1. put forward 提出 2. draw a conclusion 得出结论 3. be/get under control 在……控制下be/get out of control失去控制，不能操纵 4. be absorbed in 专心 5. be to blame 应该受责备（用主动形式表示被动）blame sb. for sth. 因某事责备某人 6. in addition 也，另外，此外 7. link...to... 将…和…连接或联系起来 8. die of 因…而死亡（内因）die from 因…而死亡（外因）
1. John Snow was a well-known doctor in London – so famous, indeed, that he attended Queen Victoria to ease the birth of her babies.约翰·斯诺曾经是伦敦一位著名的医生――他的确太负盛名了，所以维多利亚女皇生孩子时都是他去照料，帮助她顺利分娩。2. But he became inspired when he thought about helping ordinary people exposed to cholera.但当他一想到要帮助患病的普通老百姓，特别是那些得了霍乱的患者时，他就感到很振奋。3. Neither its cause, nor its cure was understood.人们既不知道它的病源，也不了解它的治疗方法。4. He knew it would never be controlled until its cause was found.他知道，在找到病源之前，疫情是无法控制的。
5. He became interested in two theories explaining how cholera killed people.霍乱之所以能致人于死，当时有两种看法，斯诺对这两种推测都很感兴趣。6. The second suggested that people absorbed this disease into their bodies with their meals.第二种看法是在吃饭的时候人们把这种病毒引入体内的。7. He believed in the second theory but needed to prove he was correct.他相信第二种说法，但是需要证明他是正确的。8. It seemed that the water was to blame.看来要归罪于饮用水了。9. Immediately John Snow told the astonished people in Broad Street to remove the handle from the water pump so it could not be used.约翰·斯诺马上叫街上惊惶失措的老百姓拆掉水泵的把手，这样水泵就用不成了。
句子翻译练习 8.被污染的水导致许多人死于霍乱。 9.感染SARS病毒的人被隔离起来。（expose…to…） 10.一座大桥连接着深圳和香港(link…to…) 11.政府应该为错误的经济政策而受到谴责（be to blame） 12.只有拆掉水泵的把手才能缓解疫情（Only when…can…） 13.哥白尼的理论正是我们的宇宙观建立的基础(on the basis of ). 14.被怀疑的那个人决心找出真正的罪犯（criminal）.(be determined to) 15.老师建议我们在上课之前先预习课文（suggest）
the way of doing sth.= the way to do … “做…..的方法” She showed us the way of cleaning it. = She showed us the way to clean it. 她给我们示范清洗它的办法.
与way相关的短语: • by the way 顺便说 • by way of … 通过……的方法 • lose one’s way 迷路 • no way (俚语) 没门,别想 • feel one’s way 摸黑走,谨慎从事 • on one’s way to…在去…的路上 • in this way=by this means=with this method用这种方法
put forward提出；建议；推荐 • Who put forward a theory about black holes? 谁提出了“黑洞”的理论？ • He puts forward several interesting plans. 他提出了几项令人感兴趣的计划。 • It’s an explanation often put forward by our friend. 这是我们的朋友经常提出的解释。
put 相关短语 put up 建立;建造 put up with… 忍受……
examine 1)检查,审查,研讨; 2)考试,考核 3)盘问 • They examined our passports very carefully. • The Congress examined and approved the draft budget. • He examined the boys in English. • He was examined by the police. • examination/exam n. 考试
1）conclusion作名词，意为“结束，结论” form one’s conclusion 得出自己的结论 make/draw a conclusion 得出结论 come to/reach/arrive at a conclusion 得出结论 bring...to a conclusion 结束(完成) in conclusion 最后
It is premature to make that conclusion. 作出那种结论仍为时过早。 • I will in conclusion say a few words about my visit to Tokyo. 最后，我对我的东京之行说几句。
2）conclude作动词，“结束；断定；决定”。 • to conclude（作插入语）最后,作为总结 (= to sum up) • To conclude, I think smoking does more harm than good to us.
analyse (analyze) v分析，分解 analysis n make an analysis of 分析 (=analyse sth)
attend v. 出席；参加；照顾；护理 • attend sb. 照料、护理某人 • attend sth. 参加（讲座、活动等） • attend class/ a lecture/ a meeting • attendance n
expose v. 1)expose ….to…. 把……暴露于……之下（之中） • He exposes his skin to the sun. 他把皮肤暴露在阳光下. • be exposed to(暴露) 2)揭露;揭发 • He exposed their plot.他揭穿了他们的阴谋. • I threatened to expose him ( to the police).我威胁要(向警察)揭发他.
cure n.& v.治愈；痊愈治愈；治疗 可构成cure sb.of sth.句型
lost control of • The driver __________his car and it knocked into a tree. 司机对车失去控制，车撞到树上。 • The car was ___________and ran into a wall.车失去控制，撞到了墙上。 • Mr Brown is ___________the shop./The shop is ___________Mr Brown. 布朗先生管理这家商店。 • The money is _______________Mr Brown.钱财由布朗先生掌管。 out of control in control of in the control of under the control of
absorb vt. 吸收(光，气体，知识等)；吸引 • Black cloth absorbs light. 黑布吸收光线。 固定搭配： • be absorbed in =put one’s heart into专注；聚精会神 • The old man was completely absorbed in the book. • 老人全神贯注地读这本书。 • absorb...into...吸收
blame v.责备；指责，归咎于 • blame sb for sth/doing sth 因某事 • blame sth on sb 把某事归咎于某人 • be to blame (for sth) 应（为...）承担责任，该（为...）受责备 • accept/bear/take the blame for sth 对某事负责任 • put/lay the blame (for sth) on sb 将某事归咎于某人
look into调查，了解，研究；朝……里面看 • He looks into her face with great interest. 他饶有兴趣地注视着她的脸。 • 【考点聚焦】 与one’s face/eyes等连用，表示“注视”