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Edinburgh Knowledge Environment Partnership 21 June 2012. Place-making and place-keeping of open spaces – MP4 Harry Smith – Heriot-Watt University. MP4 Project Aims (2008-2012). Funded by EU – Interreg IVB North Sea Region

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mp4 project aims 2008 2012
MP4 Project Aims (2008-2012)

Funded by EU – Interreg IVB North Sea Region

  • Demonstrate how positive socio-economic impacts of open space improvements can be maintained in long term
  • Provide solutions for maintenance & management needs
  • Mainstream best practice in place-keeping across North Sea Region
  • Embed place-keeping innovations into policy
  • Develop shared agenda for long-term open space improvement

HafenCity, Hamburg

Firth Park, Sheffield

Temalekplats playground, Malmö

place making
Place-making
  • Creation of high-quality places that people want to visit, experience and enjoy
  • Implies a people-centred approach
    • Health and wellbeing
    • Sense of belonging and attachment
    • Welcoming and inclusive places

HafenCity, Hamburg; River Don, Sheffield; Hailes Quarry Park, Edinburgh.

place keeping
Place-keeping
  • What happens ‘after’ high quality places have been created
    • Retaining, maintaining and enhancing the qualities and benefits through LTM
  • Long-term management of places
    • to ensure that the social, environmental and economic quality and benefits can be enjoyed by future generations
  • E.g. trees in park growing to maturity (increased biodiversity/ aesthetic value/ interest)

Woesten, West Flanders; Leuven, Flemish Brabant; Manor & Castle, Sheffield.

place making and place keeping
Place-making and place-keeping
  • A process leading to a product?
  • A process influenced by the type of product required?
  • A two-way relationship between process and product where place-keeping is considered at the beginning?
mp4 activites
MP4 Activites
  • Assessment of current practice
    • Case studies
    • Literature review
  • Demonstration – pilot projects
      • Assess partnership and agreements
      • Evaluate process and product
      • Identify ways to improve, share good practice
  • Information sharing, influencing
    • Outputs – knowledge transfer
    • Changing practice and policy

Grassmarket, Edinburgh, Scotland; Bürgerpark, Bremen, Germany; Aarhus, Denmark.

policy
Policy
  • Widespread area-based policy initiatives are based on place-keeping ideas
  • Place-keeping often included in policy guidance, but not in statutory legislation
    • some aspects may be covered by policy (e.g. health+safety)
  • Rules/ regulations may influence use + behaviour
    • e.g. through signage
    • aims to support long-term positive use of and behaviour
policy gothenburg strategic park programme
Policy Gothenburg Strategic Park Programme

5 strategies for the landscape of Göteborg:

  • 1. Identify and enhance the characteristics
  • 2. Make sure that green areas are accessible and within reach
  • 3. Make sure every place is taken care of (=place keeping)
  • 4. Make places and spacesavailable for the residents to use
  • 5. Creatediversifiedenvironments
governance engagement
Governance & engagement
  • The processes of interaction between public, private, third sector and community partners involved in place-keeping
  • Government does not work in isolation, but through the above relations with a range of stakeholders
  • Participatory model of decision-making:
    • is underpinned by democracy
    • puts emphasis on consensus
governance engagement shared space in barger compascuum nl
Governance & engagement Shared space in Barger-Compascuum, NL

Town Council

Residents

(Comm. Group)

Project team

Project group

Reflection group

(centre group)

Communication

Design

Implementation

partnerships
Partnerships
  • Agreed shared responsibility for place-keeping
  • Partnerships are effective in achieving place-keeping, especially:
    • a combination of public-private-third sector
    • where the local community is involved + engaged

Emmen, the Netherlands; Steilshoop, Hamburg; Woesten, Belgium.

partnerships ripples in the pond firth park sheffield
PartnershipsRipples in the Pond, Firth Park, Sheffield
  • Joint partnership project between Friends of Firth Park and Parks & Countryside Service
  • Friends Group – highly involved in consultation, securing funding, design development, tendering
  • Ownership/Empowerment
  • Identity – local identity & site history fed into design
  • Design – innovative and adventurous, bespoke to the site
  • Sustainability – ongoing maintenance and community use
funding finance
Funding/ finance
  • Funding is crucial for place-keeping but limited
    • ideally in place from the outset/ place-making stage
  • Funding easier to access for place-making
    • place-keeping costs often not considered
  • Tends to come from the public sector
    • the funding of place-keeping is not statutory
    • place-keeping is particularly at risk when budgets are cut
funding finance from bids to nids hamburg
Funding/ financeFrom BIDs to NIDs, Hamburg
  • Business Improvement Districts
    • Joint financing of public realm improvements via obligatory levy
    • Additional to public provision
    • Landowners in Germany; businesses in UK
  • Neighbourhood (Housing) Improvement Districts
    • Legislated for in Hamburg in 2007
    • Pilot project in Steilshoop
evaluation
Evaluation
  • Wide range of existing tools: e.g. awards, competitions, user counts, surveys but…
    • not a statutory obligation & not carried out regularly
  • Evaluation often not a priority
    • it can be costly and time-intensive
    • but can lead to secure funding for place-keeping (e.g. Green Flag (UK))
  • Can everything be measured?
    • e.g. quality/ aesthetic value…?
    • increasing attempts to give landscape/ green space a monetary value
evaluation sociotope mapping gothenburg
EvaluationSociotope mapping, Gothenburg
  • Lövgärdet and Eriksbo: two deprived 1960s/70s housing estates with under-used adjacent nature areas
  • Identified high priority areas through sociotope map and park plan
challenges
Challenges
  • Policy: How can we improve the current policy framework for place-keeping?
  • Governance: What can and should the role of government, business and communities be in the place-keeping of open space?
  • Partnerships: How can long-lasting partnerships be formed that ensure access to resources and deliver place-keeping that meets the needs of different stakeholders?
  • Funding/finance:How can the economic benefits of open spaces be harnessed to secure funding of place-keeping?
  • Evaluation:How can barriers be overcome to ensure more widespread evaluation of open space that contributes to it its long-term management?
  • Design: How can open space be designed to facilitate long-term management?
http mp4 interreg eu

http://mp4-interreg.eu

Temalekplats playground, Malmö